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Coaxial cable is not as popular today as it was a few years ago; today the popularity contest has been dominated by twisted-pair cabling Twisted-pair cabling get its name by having four pairs of wires that are twisted to help reduce crosstalk or
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Connector used to Connect NIC to Cable Type
BNC AUI
1:
Basic Network Concepts
interference from outside electrical devices Crosstalk is interference from adjacent wires Figure 1-16 shows a twisted-pair cable Just as there are two forms of coaxial cable, there are two forms of twisted-pair cabling unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP)
Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are familiar to you if you have worked with telephone cable The typical twisted-pair cable for network use contains four pairs of wires Each member of the pair of wires contained in the cable is twisted around the other The twists in the wires help shield against electromagnetic interference The maximum distance of UTP is 100 meters UTP cable uses small plastic connectors designated as registered jack 45, or most often referred to as RJ-45 RJ-45 is similar to the phone connectors, except that instead of four wires, as found in the home system, the network RJ-45 connector contains eight contacts, one for each wire in a UTP cable Figure 1-17 shows an RJ-45 Connector
FIGURE 1-16
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable
Network Media and Connectors
FIGURE 1-17
An RJ-45 connector used to connect UTP cable to a network card
It can be easy to confuse the RJ-45 connector with the RJ-11 connector The RJ-11 connector is a telephone connector and is shown in Figure 1-18 (the cable on the top) In an RJ-11 connector, there are four contacts, hence there are four wires found in the telephone cable With RJ-45 and RJ-11, you will need a special crimping tool when creating the cables to make contact between the pins in the connector and the wires inside the cable UTP cable is easier to install than coaxial because you can pull it around corners more easily due to its exibility and small size Twisted-pair cable is more susceptible to Be sure to know the interference than coaxial, however, and should different categories of UTP cabling for not be used in environments containing large the Network+ exam electrical or electronic devices
FIGURE 1-18
An RJ-11 connector (top) and an RJ-45 connector (bottom)
RJ-11
RJ-45
1:
Basic Network Concepts
TABLE 1-2
UTP Category
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 5e Category 6
Purpose
Voice only Data Data Data Data Data Data
Transfer Rate
4 Mbps 10 Mbps 16 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps) 1 Gbps/10 Gbps
Different UTP Category Cabling
UTP cabling has different avors, known as grades or categories Each category of UTP cabling was designed for a speci c type of communication or transfer rate Table 1-2 summarizes the different UTP categories the most popular today being CAT 5e, which can reach transfer rates of over 1000 Mbps or 1 gigabit per second (Gbps)
Wiring Scheme It is important to understand the order of the wires within the RJ-45 connector for both the Network+ exam and in the real world if you intend on creating (also known as crimping) your own cables Let s start with some basics of comparing a straight-through cable with a crossover cable CAT 5 UTP cabling usually uses only four wires when sending and receiving information on the network The four wires of the eight that are used are wires 1, 2, 3, and 6 Figure 1-19 shows the meaning of the pins on a computer and the pins on a hub, which is what you typically will be connecting the computers to When you con gure the wire for the same pin at either end of the cable, this is known as a straight-through cable
FIGURE 1-19
Computer Wire
Hub Wire 1 RX 2 RX 3 TX 6 TX
Pinout diagram for a straight-through cable
TX TX RX RX
1 2 3 6
Network Media and Connectors
You will notice in the gure that wires 1 and 2 are used to transmit data (TX) from the computer, while wires 3 and 6 are used to receive information (RX) on the computer You will also notice that the transmit wire on the computer matches the receive wires (RX) on the hub This is important because we want to make sure that data that is sent from the computer is received at the network hub We also want to make sure that data sent from the hub is received at the computer, so you will notice that the transmit pins (TX) on the hub are connected to the receive pins (RX) on the computer through wires 3 and 6 This will allow the computer to receive information from the hub The last thing to note about Figure 1-19 is that pin 1 on the computer is connected to pin 1 on the hub by the same wire, thus the term straight-through You will notice that all pins are matched straight through to the other side in Figure 1-19 At some point, you may need to connect two computer systems directly together without the use of a hub, from network card to network card To do this, you would not be able to use a straight-through cable because the transmit pin on one computer would be connected to the transmit pin on another computer, as shown in Figure 1-20 How could For the Network+ exam, a computer pick up the data if it was not sent to remember that to create a crossover the receive pins This will not work, so we will cable wires 1 and 2 are switched with need to change the wiring of the cable to what is wires 3 and 6 on one end of the cable known as a crossover cable In order to connect two systems directly together without the use of a hub, you will need to create a crossover cable by switching wires 1 and 2 with wires 3 and 6 at one end of the cable, as shown in Figure 1-21 You will notice that the transmit pins on Computer 1 are connected to the receive pins on Computer 2, thus allowing Computer 1 to send data to Computer 2 The same applies for Computer 2 to send to Computer 1 pins 1 and
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