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Networking: A Beginner s Guide, Second Edition
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The OSI Model separates the methods and protocols needed for a network connection into seven different layers Each higher layer relies on services provided by a lower-level layer As an illustration, if you were to think about a desktop computer in this way, its hardware would be the lowest layer, and the operating system drivers the next higher layer would rely on the lowest layer to do their job The operating system itself, the next higher layer, would rely on both of the lower layers working properly This continues all the way up to the point at which an application presents data to you on the computer screen This illustration is just to make a point: The real OSI Model contemplates only the network connection itself, and not what, for instance, computer applications do Figure 3-3 shows the seven layers of the OSI Model
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NOTE: The OSI Model is sometimes called the seven-layer model It was developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1983 and is documented as standard 7498
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For a complete network connection, data flows from the top layer on one computer, down through all the lower layers, across the wire, and back up the seven layers on the other computer The following sections discuss each layer in turn, making comparisons to real networking systems as appropriate
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The seven layers of the OSI Model
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Understanding Networking
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Physical Layer
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The first layer, the physical layer, defines the properties of the physical medium used to make a network connection The physical layer specifications result in a physical medium a network cable that can transmit a stream of bits between nodes on the physical network The physical connection can be either point-to-point (between two points) or multipoint (between many points, such as from one point to many others), and it can consist of either half-duplex (one direction at a time) or full-duplex (both directions simultaneously) transmissions Moreover, the bits can be transmitted either in series or in parallel (most networks use a serial stream of bits, but the standard allows for both serial and parallel transmission) The specification for the physical layer also defines the cable used, the voltages carried on the cable, the timing of the electrical signals, the distance that can be run, and so on A network interface card (NIC), for example, is part of the physical layer
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Data-Link Layer
The data-link layer, Layer 2, defines standards that assign meaning to the bits carried by the physical layer It establishes a reliable protocol through the physical layer so the network layer (Layer 3) can transmit its data The data-link layer typically includes error detection and correction to ensure a reliable data stream The data elements carried by the data-link layer are called frames Examples of frame types include X25 and 802x (802x includes both Ethernet and Token Ring networks) The data-link layer is usually subdivided into two sublayers, called the Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) sublayers If used, the LLC sublayer performs tasks such as call setup and termination (the OSI Model can be applied to telecommunications networks as well as LANs) and data transfer The MAC sublayer handles frame assembly and disassembly, error detection and correction, and addressing The two most common MAC protocols are 8023 Ethernet and 8025 Token Ring Other MAC protocols include 80211 100BaseVBG, 80212 Wireless, and 8027 Broadband On most systems, drivers for the NIC perform the work done at the data-link layer
Network Layer
The network layer, Layer 3, is where a lot of action goes on for most networks The network layer defines how data packets get from one point to another on a network and what goes into each packet The network layer defines different packet protocols, such as IP (Internet Protocol) and IPX (Internet Protocol Exchange) These packet protocols include source and destination routing information The routing information in each packet tells the network where to send the packet to reach its destination and tells the receiving computer from where the packet originated The network layer is most important when the network connection passes through one or more routers, which are hardware devices that examine each packet and, from their source and destination addresses, send the packets to their proper destination Over a
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