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At this point, don t worry too much about the details. The basic concept to remember from this chapter is how your C programs run: They start life as source code and then get converted to object code by the compiler. Finally, all the object code gets linked together to form your runnable application.
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C Basics: Functions
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very programming language is designed to follow strict rules that define the language s source code structure. The C programming language is no different. These next few chapters will explore the syntax of C. 3 discussed some fundamental programming topics, including the process of translating source code into machine code through a tool called the compiler. This chapter focuses on one of the primary building blocks of C programming, the function.
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C programs are made up of functions. A function is a chunk of source code that accomplishes a specific task. You might write a function that adds together a list of numbers or one that calculates the radius of a given circle. Here s an example:
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int SayHello( void ) { printf( "Hello!!!\n" ); }
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This function, named SayHello(), does one thing. It calls another function, named printf(), that prints a message in a special scrolling text window known as the console window or just plain console. Technically, the function printf() sends its output to something called standard output and Xcode redirects standard output to the console window. You ll learn more about standard output in 10, when we discuss the process of working with files. For the moment, just think of printf() as a function that sends information to the console.
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CHAPTER 4: C Basics: Functions
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Throughout this book, we ll designate a function by placing a pair of parentheses after its name. This will help distinguish between variable names and function names. For example, the name doTask refers to a variable (variables are covered in 5), while doTask() refers to a function.
The Function Definition
Functions start off with a function declaration, in this case:
int SayHello( void )
A function declaration consists of a return type, the function name, and a pair of parentheses wrapped around a parameter list. We ll talk about the return type and parameter list later. For now, the important thing is to be able to recognize a function declaration and be able to pick out the function s name from within the declaration. Following the declaration comes the body of the function. The body is always placed between a pair of curly braces: { and }. These braces are known in programming circles as left curly and right curly. Here s the body of SayHello():
{ printf( "Hello!!!\n" ); }
The body of a function consists of a series of statements. The simplest statements are typically followed by a semicolon (;). If you think of a program as a detailed set of instructions for your computer, a statement is one specific instruction. The printf() featured in the body of SayHello() is a statement. It instructs the computer to display some text in the console window. As you make your way through this book, you ll learn C s rules for creating efficient, compilable statements. Creating efficient statements will make your programs run faster with less chance of error. The more you learn about programming (and the more time you spend at your craft), the more efficient you ll make your code.
CHAPTER 4: C Basics: Functions
Syntax Errors and Algorithms
When you ask the compiler to compile your source code, the compiler does its best to translate your source code into object code. Every so often, the compiler will hit a line of source code that it just doesn t understand. When this happens, the compiler reports the problem to you. It does not complete the compile. The compiler will not let you run your program until every line of source code compiles. As you learn C, you ll find yourself making two types of mistakes. The simplest type, called a syntax error, prevents the program from compiling. The syntax of a language is the set of rules that defines what is or is not legal. A well-formed compiler will only compile code that properly follows the C language syntax, as defined by the official C standard. Many syntax errors are the result of a mistyped letter, or typo. Another common syntax error occurs when you forget the semicolon at the end of a statement. Syntax errors are usually fairly easy to fix. If the compiler doesn t tell you exactly what you need to fix, it will usually tell you where in your code the syntax error occurred and give you enough information to spot and repair the error. The second type of mistake is a semantic error, or a flaw in your program s algorithm. An algorithm is the approach used to solve a problem. You use algorithms all the time. For example, here s an algorithm for sorting your mail: 1. Start by taking the mail out of the mailbox. 2. If there s no mail, you re done! Go watch TV. 3. Take a piece of mail out of the pile. 4. If it s junk mail, throw it away, and go back to step 2. 5. If it s a bill, put it with the other bills, and go back to step 2. 6. If it s not a bill and not junk mail, read it, and go back to step 2. This algorithm completely describes the process of sorting through your mail. Notice that the algorithm works, even if you didn t get any mail. Notice also that the algorithm always ends up at step 2, with the TV on.
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