barcode reader for java mobile free download 4: C Basics: Functions in Java

Creator ECC200 in Java 4: C Basics: Functions

CHAPTER 4: C Basics: Functions
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The hello2 Source Code
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Here s the source code from main.c:
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#include <stdio.h> void SayHello( void ); int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { SayHello(); return 0; }
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void SayHello( void ) { printf( "Hello, world!\n" ); }
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Let s walk through this line by line. hello2 starts off with this line of source code:
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#include <stdio.h>
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You ll find this line (or a slight variation) at the beginning of each one of the programs in this book. It tells the compiler to include the source code from the file stdio.h as it compiles main.c. stdio.h contains information we ll need if we are going to call printf() in this source code file. You ll see the #include preprocessor directive used throughout this book. Get used to seeing this line of code at the top of each of our source code files. The line following #include is blank. This is completely cool. Since the C compiler ignores all blank lines, you can use them to make your code a little more readable. I like to leave two blank lines between each of my functions. This line of code appears next:
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void SayHello( void );
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While this line might look like a function definition, don t be fooled! If this were a function definition, it would not end with a semicolon, and it would be followed by a left curly ({) and the rest of the function. This line is known as a function prototype or function declaration. You ll include a function prototype for every function, other than main(), in your source code file. To understand why, it helps to know that a compiler reads your source code file from the beginning to the end, a line at a time. By placing a complete list of function prototypes at the beginning of the file, you give the compiler a preview of the functions it is about to
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CHAPTER 4: C Basics: Functions
compile. The compiler uses this information to make sure that calls to these functions are made correctly.
NOTE
This will make a lot more sense to you once we get into the subject of parameters in 7. For now, get used to seeing function prototypes at the beginning of all your source code files.
Next comes the function main(). The first thing main() does is call the function SayHello():
int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { SayHello();
At this point, the lines of the function SayHello() get run. When SayHello() is finished, main() can move on to its next line of code. The keyword return tells the compiler to return from the current function, without executing the remainder of the function. We ll talk about return later on. Until then, the only place you ll see this line is at the end of main().
return 0; }
Following main() is another pair of blank lines, followed by the function SayHello(). SayHello() prints the string Hello, world! , followed by a return, in a window, and then returns control to main().
void SayHello( void ) { printf( "Hello, world!\n" ); }
Let s step back for a second and compare our first program to hello2. In our first program, main() called printf() directly. In hello2, main() calls a function that then calls printf(). This extra layer demonstrates a basic C programming technique, taking code from one function and using it to create a new function. This example took this line of code:
printf( "Hello, world!\n" );
and used it to create a new function called SayHello(). This function is now available for use by the rest of the program. Every time we call the function SayHello(), it s as if we executed the line of code:
printf( "Hello, world!\n" );
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