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PART I The syntax for a connection with password authentication using SQL*Plus is
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CONNECT username / password [@db_alias] ;
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Or with Database Control, select NORMAL from the Connect As drop-down box When connecting with password authentication, the instance will validate the password given against that stored with the user account in the data dictionary For this to work, the database must be open; it is therefore logically impossible to issue STARTUP or SHUTDOWN commands when connected with password authentication The user SYS is not permitted to connect with password authentication; only password file, operating system, or LDAP authentication is possible for SYS Usernames are case sensitive but are automatically converted to uppercase unless specified within double quotes In previous releases of the database, passwords were not case sensitive at all With release 11g, passwords are case sensitive and there is no automatic case conversion It is not necessary to use double quotes; the password will always be read exactly as entered When a connection is made across a network, release 11g will always encrypt it using the AES algorithm before transmission To use encryption for the ongoing traffic between the user process and the server process requires the Advanced Security Option, but password encryption is standard Any user can change their user account password at any time, or a highly privileged user (such as SYSTEM) can change any user account password The syntax (whether you are changing your own password or another one) is
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ALTER USER username IDENTIFIED BY password ;
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If a user account is created with external authentication, Oracle will delegate the authentication to an external service; it will not prompt for a password If the Advanced Security Option has been licensed, then the external service can be a Kerberos server, a RADIUS server, or (in the Windows environment) the Windows native authentication service When a user attempts to connect to the user account, rather than authenticating the user itself, the database instance will accept (or reject) the authentication according to whether the external authentication service has authenticated the user For example, if using Kerberos, the database will check that the user does have a valid Kerberos token Without the Advanced Security Option, the only form of external authentication that can be used is operating system authentication This is a requirement for SYSDBA and SYSOPER accounts (as already discussed) but can also be used for normal users The technique is to create an Oracle user account with the same name as the operating system user account but prefixed with a string specified by the instance parameter OS_ AUTHENT_PREFIX This parameter defaults to the string OPS$ To check its value, use a query such as
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select value from v$parameter where name='os_authent_prefix';
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On Linux or Unix, external operating system authentication is very simple Assuming that the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX is on default and that there is an operating system user called jwatson, then create an oracle user and grant the CREATE SESSION privilege as follows:
create user ops$jwatson identified externally; grant create session to ops$jwatson;
A user logged on to Unix as jwatson will be able to issue the command:
sqlplus /
from an operating system prompt, and will be connected to the database user account ops$jwatson Under Windows, when Oracle queries the operating system to identify the user, Windows will usually (depending on details of Windows security configuration) return the username prefixed with the Windows domain Assuming that the Windows logon ID is John Watson (including a space) and that the Windows domain is JWACER (which happens to be the machine name) and that the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX is on default, the command will be
create user "OPS$JWACER\JOHN WATSON" identified externally;
Note that the username must be in uppercase, and because of the illegal characters (a backslash and a space) must be enclosed in double quotes TIP Using external authentication can be very useful, but only if the users actually log on to the machine hosting the database Users will rarely do this, so the technique is more likely to be of value for accounts used for running maintenance or batch jobs
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