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Security-Critical Instance Parameters
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Some parameters are vital to consider for securing the database The defaults are usually fine, but in some circumstances (for which there should always be a good business case), you may need to change them All of the parameters described here
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are static: you must restart the instance for a change to take effect This is intended to provide extra security, as it reduces the likelihood that they can be changed temporarily to an inappropriate setting without the DBA being aware of it
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UTL_FILE_DIR
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The UTL_FILE_DIR instance parameter defaults to NULL and is therefore not a security problem But if you need to set it, take care This parameter gives PL/SQL access to the file system of the server machine, through the UTL_FILE supplied package The package has procedures to open a file (either a new file or an existing one) and read from and write to it The only limitation is that the directories listed must be accessible to the Oracle owner The difficulty with this parameter is that, being set at the instance level, it offers no way to allow some users access to some directories and other users access to other directories All users with execute permission on the UTL_FILE package have access to all the directories listed in the UTL_FILE_DIR parameter The parameter takes a comma-separated list of directories and is static To set it, follow the syntax in this example, which gives access to two directories, and restart the instance:
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SQL> alter system set utl_file_dir='/oracle/tmp','/oracle/interface' scope=spfile;
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TIP The UTL_FILE_DIR parameter can include wildcards Never set it to * , because that will allow all users access to everything that the database owner can see, including the ORACLE_HOME and all the database files
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REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT and OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX
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The REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT instance parameter defaults to FALSE This controls whether a user can connect to the database from a remote computer without the need to supply a password The reasons for wanting to do this have largely disappeared with modern computer systems, but the capability is still there In the days before all users had intelligent terminals, such as PCs, it was customary for users to log on directly to the database server machine and therefore to be authenticated by the server s operating system They would then launch their user process on the server machine and connect to the database In order to avoid the necessity for users to provide usernames and passwords twice (once for the operating system logon, and again for the database logon), it was common to create the Oracle users with this syntax:
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SQL> create user jon identified externally;
This delegates responsibility for authentication to the server s operating system Any person logged on to the server machine as operating system user jon will be able to connect to the database without the need for any further authentication:
$ sqlplus / Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 111060 - Production
6: Oracle Security
SQL> show user; USER is "JON SQL>
PART I
This is secure, as long as your server s operating system is secure As networking became more widespread, it became common to separate the user process workload from the server process workload by having users log on to a different machine dedicated to running user processes, which would connect to the server over Oracle Net (or SQL*Net, as it was then known) Since the user no longer logs on to the server s operating system, external authentication can t be used unless you use the REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT parameter Setting this to TRUE means that user JON can connect without a password from any machine where he is logged on as operating system user jon An example of the syntax is
sqlplus connect /@orcl11g
This will log the user on to the database identified in the connect string ORCL11G, passing through his operating system username on his local machine as the database username This is only secure if you trust the operating systems of all machines connected to the network An obvious danger is PCs: it is common for users to have administration rights on their PCs, and they can therefore create user accounts that match any Oracle account name TIP It is generally considered bad practice to enable remote operating system authentication The OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX instance parameter is related to external authentication, either local or remote It specifies a prefix that must be applied to the operating system username before it can be mapped onto an Oracle username The default is OPS$ In the preceding example, it is assumed that this parameter has been cleared, with
SQL> alter system set os_authent_prefix='' scope=spfile;
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