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OCA/OCP Oracle Database 11g All-in-One Exam Guide
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5 If using Linux or Unix, identify the location of the system audit trail by querying the parameter AUDIT_FILE_DEST This will be used for the auditing of SYS operations, irrespective of the setting for AUDIT_DEST With SQL*Plus:
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select value from v$parameter where name='audit_file_dest';
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Using an operating system utility, navigate to this directory and open the most recently created file If using Microsoft Windows, open the Application Log in the Event Viewer Either way, you will see the SELECT statement that you executed as SYS, with details of the operating system user and hostname 6 Connect to the database as AUDITOR, and run these queries:
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select count(*)from systemaudi; select count(*) from systemproduct_user_profile;
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7 As user SYSTEM, run this query to see the audit events:
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select sql_text,priv_used,action_name from dba_audit_trail where username='AUDITOR';
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Note that the lowest possible privilege is used: access to the AUDI table was through the SELECT object privilege, not through the much more powerful (SELECT ANY TABLE) system privilege that was needed to get to PRODUCT_ USER_PROFILE 8 Tidy up:
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drop user auditor; drop table systemaudi;
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Create and Manage Database User Accounts
Users connect to a user account, which is coupled with a schema All users must be authenticated before they can connect A user must have a quota on a tablespace before they create any objects A user who owns objects cannot be dropped, unless the CASCADE keyword is used
Grant and Revoke Privileges
By default, a user can do nothing You can t even log on Direct privileges are always enabled A revocation of a system privilege does not cascade; a revocation of an object privilege does
6: Oracle Security
Create and Manage Roles
PART I Roles are not schema objects Roles can contain both system and object privileges, and other roles A role can be enabled or disabled for a session
Create and Manage Profiles
Profiles can manage passwords and resource limits Password limits are always enforced; resource limits are dependent on an instance parameter Every user is associated with a profile, which by default is the DEFAULT profile
Database Security and Principle of Least Privilege
Everything not specifically permitted should be forbidden The database administrator and the system administrator should not be the same person Privileges granted to the PUBLIC role must be monitored Security-critical instance parameters must be monitored and cannot be changed without restarting the instance
Work with Standard Database Auditing
Database auditing can be oriented toward privileges, commands, or objects Audit records can be directed toward a database table or an operating system file Database audit records are stored in the SYSAUD$ data dictionary table Fine-grained auditing can be directed toward particular rows and columns Auditing can also be implemented with database triggers
Self Test
1 How can you permit users to connect without requiring them to authenticate themselves (Choose the best answer) A Grant CREATE SESSION to PUBLIC B Create a user such as this, without a password:
CREATE USER ANON IDENTIFIED BY ';
C Create a profile that disables password authentication and assign it to the users D You cannot do this because all users must be authenticated
OCA/OCP Oracle Database 11g All-in-One Exam Guide
2 You create a user with this statement:
create user jon identified by oracle default tablespace example;
What more must be done before he can create a table in the EXAMPLE tablespace (Choose all correct answers) A Nothing more is necessary B Give him a quota on EXAMPLE C Grant him the CREATE TABLE privilege D Grant him the CREATE SESSION privilege E Grant him the MANAGE TABLESPACE privilege 3 If a user owns tables in a tablespace, what will be the effect of attempting to reduce their quota on the tablespace to zero (Choose the best answer) A The tables will survive, but INSERTs will fail B The tables will survive but cannot get bigger C The attempt will fail unless the tables are dropped first D The tables will be dropped automatically if the CASCADE keyword is used 4 If you create a user without specifying a temporary tablespace, what temporary tablespace will be assigned (Choose the best answer) A You must specify a temporary tablespace B SYSTEM C TEMP D The database default temporary tablespace E The user will not have a temporary tablespace 5 You issue these commands:
a b c d grant grant grant grant select all on dba to select on hrregions to jon; hrregions to jon; jon; on hrregions to public;
Which grants could be revoked to prevent JON from seeing the contents of HRREGIONS (Choose all correct answers) A a, b, c, and d B a, c, and d C b, c, and d D c and d E a, b, and c 6 Which of these statements about system privileges are correct (Choose all correct answers) A Only the SYS and SYSTEM users can grant system privileges
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