javascript barcode scanner mobile The ORDER BY Clause in Software

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The ORDER BY Clause
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The ORDER BY clause is always the last clause in a SELECT statement As the full syntax of the SELECT statement is progressively exposed, you will observe new clauses
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added, but none of them will be positioned after the ORDER BY clause The format of the ORDER BY clause in the context of the SQL SELECT statement is as follows:
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SELECT *|{[DISTINCT] column|expression [alias],} FROM table [WHERE condition(s)] [ORDER BY {col(s)|expr|numeric_pos} [ASC|DESC] [NULLS FIRST|LAST]];
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Ascending and Descending Sorting
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Ascending sort order is natural for most types of data and is therefore the default sort order used whenever the ORDER BY clause is specified An ascending sort order for numbers is lowest to highest, while it is earliest to latest for dates and alphabetically for characters The first form of the ORDER BY clause shows that results of a query may be sorted by one or more columns or expressions:
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ORDER BY col(s)|expr;
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Suppose that a report is requested that must contain an employee s LAST_NAME, HIRE_DATE, and SALARY information, sorted alphabetically by the LAST_NAME column for all sales representatives and marketing managers This report could be extracted with
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select last_name, hire_date, salary from employees where job_id in ('SA_REP','MK_MAN') order by last_name;
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The data selected may be ordered by any of the columns from the tables in the FROM clause, including those that do not appear in the SELECT list By appending the keyword DESC to the ORDER BY clause, rows are returned sorted in descending order The optional NULLS LAST keywords specify that if the sort column contains null values, then these rows are to be listed last after sorting the remaining NOT NULL values To specify that rows with null values in the sort column should be displayed first, append the NULLS FIRST keywords to the ORDER BY clause A dataset may be sorted based on an expression as follows:
select last_name, salary, hire_date, sysdate-hire_date tenure from employees order by tenure;
The smallest TENURE value appears first in the output, since the ORDER BY clause specifies that the results will be sorted by the expression alias Note that the results could be sorted by the explicit expression and the alias could be omitted, but using aliases renders the query easier to read Several implicit default options are selected when you use the ORDER BY clause The most important of these is that unless DESC is specified, the sort order is assumed to be ascending If null values occur in the sort column, the default sort order is assumed to be NULLS LAST for ascending sorts and NULLS FIRST for descending sorts If no ORDER BY clause is specified, the same query executed at different times may return the same set of results in different row order, so no assumptions should be made regarding the default row order
9: Retrieving, Restricting, and Sorting Data Using SQL
Positional Sorting
Oracle offers an alternate shorter way to specify the sort column or expression Instead of specifying the column name, the position of the column as it occurs in the SELECT list is appended to the ORDER BY clause Consider the following example:
select last_name, hire_date, salary from employees order by 2;
The ORDER BY clause specifies the numeric literal 2 This is equivalent to specifying ORDER BY HIRE_DATE, since that is the second column in the SELECT clause Positional sorting applies only to columns in the SELECT list
PART II
Composite Sorting
Results may be sorted by more than one column using composite sorting Multiple columns may be specified (either literally or positionally) as the composite sort key by comma-separating them in the ORDER BY clause To fetch the JOB_ID, LAST_ NAME, SALARY, and HIRE_DATE values from the EMPLOYEES table such that the results must be sorted in reverse alphabetical order by JOB_ID first, then in ascending alphabetical order by LAST_NAME, and finally in numerically descending order based on the SALARY column, you can run the following query:
select job_id, last_name, salary, hire_date from employees where job_id in ('SA_REP','MK_MAN') order by job_id desc, last_name, 3 desc;
Exercise 9-4: Use the ORDER BY Clause The JOBS table contains descriptions of different types of jobs an employee in the organization may occupy It contains the JOB_ID, JOB_TITLE, MIN_SALARY, and MAX_SALARY columns You are required to write a query that extracts the JOB_TITLE, MIN_SALARY, and MAX_SALARY columns, as well as an expression called VARIANCE, which is the difference between the MAX_ SALARY and MIN_SALARY values, for each row The results must include only JOB_ TITLE values that contain either the word President or Manager Sort the list in descending order based on the VARIANCE expression If more than one row has the same VARIANCE value, then, in addition, sort these rows by JOB_TITLE in reverse alphabetic order 1 Start SQL Developer and connect to the HR schema 2 Sorting is accomplished with the ORDER BY clause Composite sorting is required using both the VARIANCE expression and the JOB_TITLE column in descending order 3 Executing this statement returns a set of results matching the request:
SELECT JOB_TITLE, MIN_SALARY, MAX_SALARY, (MAX_SALARY - MIN_SALARY) VARIANCE FROM JOBS WHERE JOB_TITLE LIKE '%President%' OR JOB_TITLE LIKE '%Manager%' ORDER BY VARIANCE DESC, JOB_TITLE DESC;
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