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Failures can be divided into a few broad categories For each type of failure, there will be an appropriate course of action to resolve it Each type of failure may well be documented in a service level agreement; certainly the steps to be followed should be documented in a procedures manual
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An individual SQL statement can fail for a number of reasons, not all of which are within the DBA s domain but even so, he/she must be prepared to fix them The first level of fixing will be automatic Whenever a statement fails, the server process executing the statement will detect the problem and roll back the statement Remember that a statement might attempt to update many rows, and fail partway through execution; all the rows that were updated before the failure will have their changes reversed through the use of undo This will happen automatically If the statement is part of a multistatement transaction, all the statements that have already succeeded will remain intact, but uncommitted Ideally, the programmers will have included exceptions clauses in their code that will identify and manage any problems, but there will always be some errors that get through the error handling routines A common cause of statement failure is invalid data, usually a format or constraint violation A well-written user program will avoid format problems, such as attempting to insert character data into a numeric field, but these can often occur when doing batch jobs with data coming from a third-party system Oracle itself will try to solve formatting problems by doing automatic typecasting to convert data types on the fly, but this is not very efficient and shouldn t be relied upon Constraint violations will be detected, but Oracle can do nothing to solve them Clearly, problems caused by invalid data are not the DBA s fault, but you must be prepared to deal with them by working with the users to validate and correct the data, and with the programmers to try to automate these processes A second class of non-DBA-related statement failure is logic errors in the application Programmers may well develop code that in some circumstances is impossible for the database to execute A perfect example is the deadlock described in 8: the code will run perfectly, until through bad luck two sessions happen to try to do the same thing at the same time to the same rows A deadlock is not a database error; it is an error caused by programmers writing code that permits an impossible situation to arise Space management problems are frequent, but they should never occur A good DBA will monitor space usage proactively and take action before problems arise Space-related causes of statement failure include inability to extend a segment because
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14: Configuring the Database for Backup and Recovery
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the tablespace is full; running out of undo space; insufficient temporary space when running queries that use disk sorts or working with temporary tables; a user hitting their quota limit; or an object hitting its maximum extents limit Database Control gives access to the undo advisor, the segment advisor, the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, and the alert mechanism, all described in chapters to come, which will help to pick up space-related problems before they happen The effect of space problems that slip through can perhaps be alleviated by setting datafiles to autoextend, or by enabling resumable space allocation, but ideally space problems should never arise in the first place TIP Issue the command alter session enable resumable and from then on the session will not show errors on space problems but instead hang until the problem is fixedYou can enable resumable for the whole instance with the RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT parameter Statements may fail because of insufficient privileges Remember from 6 how privileges let a user do certain things, such as select from a table or execute a piece of code When a statement is parsed, the server process checks whether the user executing the statement has the necessary permissions This type of error indicates that the security structures in place are inappropriate, and the DBA (in conjunction with the organization s security manager) should grant appropriate system and object privileges EXAM TIP If a statement fails, it will be rolled back Any other DML statements will remain intact and uncommitted Figure 14-1 shows some examples of statement failure: a data error, a permissions error, a space error, and a logic error
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