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will add an extra, Oracle-aware, layer to space management that will further enhance performance while reducing the management workload
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Implementing ASM requires a change in the instance architecture It even requires another instance There is an instance parameter: INSTANCE_TYPE, which defaults to RDBMS An RDBMS instance is a normal instance, used for opening a database and accepting user sessions Setting this parameter to ASM will start an Automatic Storage Management instance, which is very different An ASM instance is not used by end users; it controls access to ASM files stored on ASM disk groups, on behalf of the RDBMS instances These files are functionally the same as non-ASM database files: they are datafiles, controlfiles, log files, and recovery files, but they are stored in the ASM logical volume manager environment, not in the file systems provided by your operating system The Oracle cluster services are needed on the host in order to set up communication between the RDBMS instances and the ASM instance The cluster services are the same services used to enable a RAC (or Real Application Clusters) environment, where several instances on several hosts open a shared database
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Oracle Corporation provides a suite of clusterware This is intended for setting up a RAC: a group of instances on several machines opening a database on shared disks Oracle clusterware can be used as a replacement for clusterware that you would otherwise buy from your hardware and operating system vendor However, the cluster services are also used in a single-instance environment to set up the communications between ASM and RDBMS instances EXAM TIP ASM is not required for RAC (because you can use a third-party clustered volume manager for the shared database files), nor is it only for RAC (because it works very well for single-instance, nonclustered databases too) In a RAC environment, the cluster services require a separate installation and will run off their own Oracle home In a single-instance environment, the small part of the cluster services that is needed to enable ASM is installed into and runs from the database Oracle home; this is the CSSD, or Cluster Services Synchronization Daemon Under Windows, the CSSD runs as a service; on Unix, it is a daemon launched by an entry in the /etc/inittab file
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An ASM disk group is a pool of ASM disks managed as one logical unit As with any other LVM, ASM takes a number of physical volumes and presents them to Oracle as one or more logical volumes The physical volumes can be actual disks or partitions of disks, or they can be volumes managed by a volume manager that is part of your
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operating system Either way, they will not be formatted with any file system; they must be raw devices ASM will take the raw devices and put them into a number of ASM disk groups A disk group is the logical volume EXAM TIP ASM disks must be raw devices, without a file system, but they do not need to be actual disks They can be disks, partitions of a disk, or logical volumes managed by an LVM TIP It is possible to set up ASM using files instead of raw disks, but this is totally unsupported and suitable only for training or demonstration systems For example, on a Linux system you might have six SCSI disks of 72GB each You could decide to use one of them, /dev/sda, for the root file system and utilities Then use /dev/sdb for the $ORACLE_HOME directories, and then /dev/sdc, /dev/sdd, /dev/ sde, and /dev/sdf for the database files You would create a file system on each disk and format it probably as ext3 and then mount the file systems onto directory mount points in the root file system This is all very well, but you are wasting the performance potential of the machine It will be extremely difficult to balance the I/O evenly across the four disks used for the database, and you will have to monitor which files have the most activity and try to keep them separate Also, one disk may fill up while the others have plenty of space The equivalent Windows example would be drive C: for Windows itself, and drive D: for the ORACLE_HOME Then drives E:, F:, G:, and H: would be dedicated to database files Probably all the disks would be formatted as NTFS If you were to put the four disks dedicated to the database into one RAID 0 logical volume, you would get better performance, and a system that requires much less monitoring and management But it may be that you do not have a logical volume manager Enter ASM To use ASM, you would not format the four disks to be used for database files The root file system and the ORACLE_HOME file system must be managed as normal; you cannot use ASM volumes for anything other than database and recovery files Then you would launch an ASM instance and set instance parameters such that it will find the four raw volumes and place them into one ASM disk group This group will contain the database, with whatever RAID characteristics you want EXAM TIP You can use ASM only for database and recovery files, not for your Oracle Home or for anything else The definition of database file is quite broad, but does not include trace files, the alert log, the password file, or a static parameter file The size of the ASM disk group is the sum of the size of the ASM disks less a small amount, but depending on what degree of fault tolerance is specified, the size available for use will be less The default fault tolerance is single mirror, meaning that, to continue our example, the end result will be close to 144GB of space available for the database,
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