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20: Automatic Storage Management
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RDBMS instances use files in disk groups managed by the ASM instance If the ASM instance has not started and mounted the disk groups, then the RDBMS instances cannot open It is therefore necessary to ensure, through your operating system utilities, that the ASM instance starts before the RDBMS instances that are dependent upon it If the ASM instance terminates, then the dependent RDBMS instances will terminate also If, when a SHUTDOWN command is issued to an ASM instance, one or more RDBMS instances have opened files in one of its disk groups, then you will receive this message:
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ORA-15097: cannot SHUTDOWN ASM instance with connected RDBMS instance
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The exception is a SHUTDOWN ABORT, which will terminate the ASM instance and thus cause the termination of the RDBMS instance(s) PART III TIP If an RDBMS instance fails, the ASM instance will not be affected If an ASM instance fails, the dependent RDBMS instances will abort Exercise 20-2: Create an ASM Instance Create a parameter file and use it to start an ASM instance All steps in this exercise should be done from an operating system prompt The examples assume that you are using simulated raw disks, as created in Exercise 20-1 If you have real raw devices, substitute their names accordingly, and omit the hidden parameter Note that Step 2 is applicable only to Windows 1 Configure the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon This requires running the localconfig utility, in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory On Unix, this must be run as the root user:
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On Windows, you will see that a service has been created and put on automatic start called OracleCSService; on Unix, you will see an entry in the /etc/ inittab file that will respawn the initcssd process at run levels 3 and 5 2 From an operating system prompt, run the ORADIM utility to create a Windows service for the ASM instance
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This will create and start the ASM service Subsequently, it must be started either from the Control Panel Services, or with this command from the operating system prompt:
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C:\> net start oracleasmservice+ASM
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3 If using Windows, use the Notepad to create a file named INIT+ASMORA in the ORACLE_HOME\database directory, with just these four lines:
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instance_name='+asm' instance_type='asm' asm_diskstring='c:\app\oracle\raw*disk' _asm_allow_only_raw_disks=false
OCA/OCP Oracle Database 11g All-in-One Exam Guide
If using Linux, use an editor such as vi to create a file named init+asmora in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory with these five lines:
instance_name='+asm' instance_type='asm' asm_diskstring='/u01/app/oracle/raw*disk' _asm_allow_only_raw_disks=false memory_target=0
Note the use of the parameter _ASM_ALLOW_ONLY_RAW_DISKS This is a hidden parameter (use of which is not supported) that will allow ASM to use files rather than raw devices for the purposes of this exercise The last parameter disables automatic memory management, which is necessary on some Linux systems depending on how shared memory has been configured 4 Set your ORACLE_SID environment variable to the ASM instance name 5 Connect to the ASM instance with SQL*Plus as SYSASM, and start the instance 6 Confirm that ASM has found the disks with this SQL statement:
select path,os_mb from v$asm_disk;
The illustration shows Steps 3, 4, and 5 executed on a Windows system
Creating ASM Disk Groups
Disk groups are created by an ASM instance and then used by an RDBMS instance To create a disk group, as a minimum, give the group a name and a list of disks that have been discovered by the ASM disk string and are therefore visible in the V$ASM_DISK view:
SQL> create diskgroup dg1 disk '/dev/sdc', '/dev/sdd', '/dev/sde', '/dev/sdf';
20: Automatic Storage Management
If you nominate a disk that is already part of a disk group, the command will fail The default level of redundancy provided by ASM is normal redundancy, meaning that each AU is mirrored once All files will be striped across all the disks for maximum performance For normal redundancy, the group must have at least two disks, and the effective size of the group will be half the total space allocated In the preceding example, which continues the Linux four-SCSI-disk example discussed earlier, the result will be a disk group with an effective size of 144GB (less a small amount) Every file created in the group will (unless specified otherwise) be striped and mirrored with RAID 0+1 The stripe size will be selected by ASM according to the type of file: online redo log files and controlfile copies will be fine striped; datafiles and archive logs will be coarse striped To override the default NORMAL redundancy, meaning single mirror, add the keywords HIGH REDUNDANCY or EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY to the CREATE DISKGROUP command HIGH REDUNDANCY will create three copies of every allocation unit (and therefore requires a minimum of three disks), and EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY will not mirror at all: the assumption is that there is an underlying LVM that is doing whatever level of RAID is deemed appropriate Redundancy can be taken a step further by putting ASM disks within a disk group into failure groups When ASM mirrors extents, it will never mirror an extent to another disk in the same failure group This means that you are better protected against the failure of multiple disks By default, each disk is considered to be its own failure group; this gives ASM complete freedom to mirror that disk s data onto any other disk in the group However, if some disks are connected at the hardware level, typically by being attached to the same controller, you would not want ASM to mirror between them Using failure groups forces ASM to create mirrors on a different subset of the disks within the group An example of this is
SQL> create diskgroup dgroupa normal redundancy failgroup controller2 disk '/dev/rdsk/c2*' failgroup controller3 disk '/dev/rdsk/c3*';
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