javascript barcode scanner example Managing the AWR in Software

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Managing the AWR
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Snapshots of statistics data are kept in the AWR, by default, for eight days This period is configurable As a rough guide for sizing, if the snapshot collection is left on every hour and the retention time is left on eight days, then the AWR may well require between 200MB and 300MB of space in the SYSAUX tablespace But this figure is highly variable and will to a large extent depend on the number of sessions To administer the AWR with Database Control, from the database home page select the Server tab, then the Automatic Workload Repository link in the Statistics Management section The Automatic Workload Repository window, as in Figure 24-1, shows the
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OCA/OCP Oracle Database 11g All-in-One Exam Guide
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Figure 24-1
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The AWR administration window
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current settings for snapshot collection and retention and for the STATISTICS_LEVEL and lets you adjust them Adjusting the AWR settings to save snapshots more frequently will make problem diagnosis more precise If the snapshots are several hours apart, you may miss peaks of activity (and consequent dips in performance) But gathering snapshots too frequently will increase the size of the AWR and could possibly impact performance due to the increased workload of collecting and saving the information TIP It is important to monitor the size and growth of the SYSAUX tablespace and the AWR within it The Alert system will assist with the first task, and the view V$SYSAUX_OCCUPANTS should be used for the second EXAM TIP By default, AWR snapshots are taken every hour and saved for eight days The AWR is located in the SYSAUX tablespace and cannot be relocated to anywhere else
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24: The AWR and the Alert System
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Statistics, Metrics, and Baselines
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AWR snapshots contain statistics What Oracle calls a statistic is a raw figure, which is meaningless by itself To be useful, statistics must be converted into metrics A metric is two or more statistics correlated together For example, the number of disk reads is a statistic; perhaps the number is two billion By itself, this is useless information What the DBA needs to know are metrics such as disk reads per second, disk reads per transaction, disk reads per SQL statement, and disk reads per session The DBA will also need to do further correlations For example, disk reads per transaction is very useful; it will identify the transactions that are stressing the I/O system and perhaps should be tuned But the DBA will need to observe this metric over time and see how it changes perhaps as the SQL is rewritten or indexing structures are changed, the I/O workload will reduce This introduces the baseline A baseline is a stored set of statistics (and metrics) that can be used for comparisons across time As the MMON process saves an AWR snapshot, it automatically generates a large number of metrics from the statistics Creating baselines must be done by the DBA Snapshots are purged after a certain period by default, after eight days A baseline is a pair (possibly several pairs) of snapshots that will be kept indefinitely: until the baseline is deliberately dropped The metrics derived from the baseline can then be compared with the metrics derived from current activity levels, assisting you with identifying changes in activity and behavior Baselines need to be created for specific events and for normal running For example, if the database has regular end-of-month processing, it would make sense to store the AWR snapshots gathered during each month end as baselines so that throughout the year you can observe how the month-end processing activity is changing and determine whether any problems are apparent It also makes sense to store baselines for periods of normal, satisfactory running so that if performance degrades at a later time, information will be available that will help identify what might have changed To create a baseline with Database Control, select the link next to Baselines shown in Figure 24-1 In the figure, this link is 1, indicating that at the moment there is only one baseline This link will take you to the AWR Baselines window From there, you can define periods to store as baselines
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