javascript barcode scanner example 24: The AWR and the Alert System in Software

Encoder Code 39 in Software 24: The AWR and the Alert System

24: The AWR and the Alert System
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had to be run regularly, and they had to be updated to take account of changes in technology Many companies have written and marketed tools to do the same thing The Alert system replaces a vast amount of this humdrum work It will monitor many conditions that can cause problems, and will send notifications by a variety of methods With regard to space management, it is by default configured to raise a warning alert when a tablespace reaches 85 percent full and a critical alert when a tablespace is 97 percent full, with account being taken of auto-extension and the nature of the contents Alerts comes in two forms Stateful alerts are based on conditions that persist and can be fixed Tablespace space usage is an example, or the number of sessions hanging, or the average time it is taking to complete a SQL statement execution Stateless alerts are based on events; they happen and are gone A query failing with snapshot too old or two transactions deadlocking are examples To configure the Alert system, you set thresholds The thresholds are stored in the AWR Then the MMON background process will monitor the database and the instance, in real time, and compare the current state with the thresholds If a threshold is crossed, it will raise the alert The mechanism by which an alert is raised is simply to put an entry on the alert queue A queue is a table of messages that other processes can read What happens to the alert message next is a matter for further configuration The default behavior is that Enterprise Manager (either Database Control or Grid Control) will dequeue the message and display it on the database home page, but Enterprise Manager can be configured to send e-mails or SMS messages when it finds that an alert has been raised You can also view the alerts by querying the view DBA_OUTSTANDING_ ALERTS, and it is possible to write an alert handler that will dequeue the messages and take any action desired EXAM TIP Alerts are raised by the MMON process, not by Enterprise Manager Enterprise Manager reads alerts, as can other event handlers written by you or by third parties
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There are over 200 metrics for which you can set thresholds They are documented in the view V$METRICNAME, which gives the name of the metric and the units in which it is measured, and the ID number by which it is identified There is an API (the DBMS_SERVER_ALERT package) for setting thresholds For example:
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 execute dbms_server_alertset_threshold(metrics_id=>dbms_server_alertredo_generated_sec,warning_operator=>dbms_server_alertoperator_ge,warning_value=>'1000000',critical_operator=>dbms_server_alertoperator_ge,critical_value=>'2000000',observation_period=>1,consecutive_occurrences=>5,instance_name=>'ORCL11G',object_type=>dbms_server_alertobject_type_system,object_name=>null);
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Taking this PL/SQL execution call line by line: 1 The procedure SET_THRESHOLD will create or update an alert threshold 2 The metric being set is the rate of redo generation, measured in bytes per second 3 The comparison operator for the warning level, which is greater than or equal to 4 The value for a warning alert, which is 1MB a second 5 The comparison operator for the critical level, which is greater than or equal to 6 The value for a critical alert, which is 2MB a second 7 The observation period, in minutes 8 The number of consecutive occurrences before the alert is raised 9 The instance for which the alert is being configured 10 The type of object to which the alert refers 11 The name of the object to which the alert refers Note that not all the arguments are relevant for all alerts The preceding example configures an alert for the rate of redo generation; a warning will be raised if this exceeds 1MB a second, and a critical warning if it goes over 2MB a second The observation period is set to a minute and consecutive occurrences to five; this means that if the redo generation happens to hit a high level just a couple of times, it will not be reported but if it stays at a high level consistently (for five consecutive minutes), then it will be reported As this metric is one that could vary between instances in a RAC environment, the instance name must be specified, but the object name is not relevant If the alert were for tablespace usage, then the instance name would not be specified, the object type would be tablespace, and the object name would be set to the name of the tablespace To reach the graphical interface for setting thresholds, select the Metric And Policy Settings link in the Related Links section on the database home page This will show all the metrics with their settings Clicking the Edit symbol for a metric will take you to the window where the thresholds can be set Figure 24-8 shows this for the Redo Generated (per second) metric, after executing the procedure call just described The graphical interface does not give access to all the settings for all the metrics; in this case, you cannot specify an observation period (it is always set to one minute) and have no choice of comparison operators
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