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Managing Database Storage Structures
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4 Create a table and an index in the tablespace:
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create table mantab (c1 number) tablespace manualsegs; create index mantabi on mantab(c1) tablespace manualsegs;
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These segments will be created with freelists, not bitmaps 5 Create a new tablespace that will (by default) use automatic segment space management:
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create tablespace autosegs;
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6 Move the objects into the new tablespace:
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alter table mantab move tablespace autosegs; alter index mantabi rebuild online tablespace autosegs;
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7 Confirm that the objects are in the correct tablespace:
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select tablespace_name from dba_segments where segment_name like 'MANTAB%';
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8 Drop the original tablespace:
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drop tablespace manualsegs including contents and datafiles;
9 Rename the new tablespace to the original name This is often necessary, because some application software checks tablespaces names:
alter tablespace autosegs rename to manualsegs;
10 Tidy up by dropping the tablespace, first with this command:
drop tablespace manualsegs;
Note the error caused by the tablespace not being empty, and fix it:
drop tablespace manualsegs including contents and datafiles;
Manage Space in Tablespaces
INSIDE THE EXAM
Managing Database Storage Structures
It is essential to be absolutely clear on the Oracle storage model: the abstraction of logical storage from physical, which means there is no direct relationship between a table (or any other segment type) and a datafile Space management is much simpler with the current release than with earlier releases and can indeed be completely automated by using OMF All that is ever needed, once the parameters have been set, is the simple command:
CREATE TABLESPACE tablespacename;
and then let Oracle get on with it The use of bitmaps for extent management and for space management within segments is a huge performance enhancement over earlier releases The previous techniques are only supported for backward compatibility; converting existing storage structures to the newer methods is possible Database Control includes excellent graphical tools for managing tablespaces and datafiles, but for reporting purposes it will usually be necessary to query data dictionary and dynamic performance views
CERTIFICATION SUMMARY
The relational database paradigm requires a separation of logical storage, as seen by the programmers, from the physical storage seen by the system administrators Oracle implements this with tablespaces Within a tablespace, the segments are made of extents that are made up of Oracle blocks The current techniques of managing space with bitmaps, both for allocating extents to segments and for identifying blocks within a segment that are suitable for row insertion, are far superior to earlier techniques and should always be used Combined with OMF and ASM, they can make space management completely automatic
7:
Managing Database Storage Structures
TWO-MINUTE DRILL
Understand Tablespaces and Datafiles
One tablespace can be many datafiles One tablespace can have many segments One segment is one or more extents One extent is many consecutive blocks, in one datafile One Oracle block should be one or more operating system blocks The Oracle block is the granularity of database I/O
Create and Manage Tablespaces
SMALLFILE tablespace can have many datafiles, but a BIGFILE tablespace
can have only one
Tablespaces default to local extent management, automatic segment space
management, but not to a uniform extent size
OMF datafiles are automatically named, initially 100 MB, and can autoex-
tend without limit
A tablespace that contains segments cannot be dropped, unless an
INCLUDING DATAFILES clause is specified
Tablespaces can be online or offline, read-write or read only Tablespaces can store three types of object: permanent objects, temporary
objects, or undo segments
Manage Space in Tablespaces
Local extent management tracks extent allocation with bitmaps in each datafile The UNIFORM SIZE clause when creating a tablespace forces all extents to
be the same size
The AUTOALLOCATE clause lets Oracle determine the next extent size,
which is based on how many extents are being allocated to a segment
Automatic segment space management tracks the free space in each block of
an extent using bitmaps
It is possible to convert a tablespace from dictionary extent management
to local extent management, but not from freelist segment management to automatic management
Self Test
SELF TEST
Understand Tablespace and Datafiles
1 Examine the exhibit:
Tablespaces D
Operating system block
The exhibit shows the Oracle storage model, with four entities having letters for names Match four of the following entities to the letters A, B, C, D: DATAFILE EXTENT ORACLE BLOCK ROW SEGMENT TABLE 2 What statements are correct about extents (Choose all correct answers) A An extent is a grouping of several Oracle blocks B An extent is a grouping of several operating system blocks C An extent can be distributed across one or more datafiles D An extent can contain blocks from one or more segments E An extent can be assigned to only one segment
7:
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