Performing Database Backups in Software

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Performing Database Backups
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The first two commands within the run{} block perform a clean shutdown and then bring the database back up in mount mode Then the script launches a server process to perform the backup This is known as a channel In this case, the channel is a disk channel because the backup is being directed to disk; the alternative channel type is SBT_TAPE, which is used for backups directed to a tape device The next command launches a backup operation This will be of type BACKUPSET Backup sets are an RMAN-proprietary structure that can combine many input files into one output file Backup sets have other advantages, such as compression (not enabled in this example) and the ability to reduce the size of the backup by ignoring blocks in the input datafiles that have never been used The keyword DATABASE instructs RMAN to back up the entire set of datafiles RMAN will never back up and the controlfile RMAN will never back up the online redo log les, or the temp les online redo log file members or tempfiles The It will back up data les, archivelog les, FORMAT keyword names the file that will the control le, and the sp le contain the backup set Finally, the script opens the database An operating system command that could be scheduled to run this script is
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rman target sys/oracle@orcl11g @offline_full_wholerman
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This command launches the RMAN executable, with the SYS login (necessary because of the SHUTDOWN and STARTUP commands) and then the name of the script, which must be preceded by an @ symbol RMAN can generate three types of backup:
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A backup set is a proprietary format that can contain several files and will not
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include never-used blocks
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A compressed backup set has the same content as a backup set, but RMAN
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will apply a compression algorithm as it writes out the backup set
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An image copy is a backup file that is identical to the input file An image
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copy is immediately interchangeable with its source, whereas to extract a file from a backup set requires an RMAN restore operation
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Create Consistent Database Backups
EXERCISE 16-1 Managing Consistent User- and Server-Managed Backups
In this exercise, you will perform a full offline backup using operating system commands, and then a second backup using RMAN 1 While the database is open, using either SQL*Plus or Database Control determine the names of the datafiles, the controlfile copies, and the online log file members They will probably all be in one directory, but (depending on what exercises and other work you have done) this may not be the case Suitable SQL*Plus queries have been given earlier, or in Database Control from the database home page take the Server tab, and then the appropriate links in the Storage section 2 Using either SQL*Plus or Database Control, connect as user SYS with the SYSDBA privilege, and shut down the database with the IMMEDIATE option With Database control you can do this with the Shutdown button on the database home page; with SQL*Plus issue SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE 3 Using whatever operating system utility you wish (even a GUI drag-and-drop), copy the files identified in Step 1 to a safe location 4 Using SQL*Plus or Database Control, start the database in mount mode Using Database Control, you will need to provide operating system login details, and then click the Advanced Options button and select the radio button for Mount The database If using SQL*Plus, just STARTUP MOUNT will do 5 From an operating system prompt, launch the RMAN executable (it is called rman on Unix and Linux, rmanexe on Windows) and connect using operating system authentication The command is
rman target /
6 Perform a full backup The command is
backup database;
16:
Performing Database Backups
This will, by default, back up the entire database to the flash recovery area The next illustration shows the command on a Windows system
7 Study the feedback in the RMAN session, some of which is shown in the illustration Note the launching of a channel, the identification of the datafiles, the destination in the flash recovery area, and (not visible in the illustration) the creation of a second backup set for the controlfile and the spfile 8 Using SQL*Plus or RMAN or Database Control, open the database With SQL*Plus or RMAN, the command is
alter database open;
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