Con guring the Oracle Network Environment in Software

Creator QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software Con guring the Oracle Network Environment

Con guring the Oracle Network Environment
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User process User Send/receive Send SQL, fetch results
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The database is protected from users by several layers of segregation
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All interaction woth an instance is via a server process, and the instance itself interacts with the database through its background process The link between user process and server process is maintained by Oracle Net, and will typically (though not necessarilly) be across a local area network
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Database
A Word on Oracle Net and Communication Protocols
Oracle Net is a layered protocol: it runs on top of whatever communications protocol is supported by your operating system Historically, Sqlnet could work with all the popular protocols (with the exception of NetBIOS/NetBEUI, which has too limited functionality to be used for large database systems: it cannot be routed), but in release 11g Oracle s network support is limited to TCP, TCP with secure sockets, Windows Named Pipes (or NMP), and the newer Sockets Direct Protocol (or SDP) over Infiniband high-speed networks This reduction in protocol support is in line with industry standards All operating systems also have an Inter-Process Communication (or IPC) protocol proprietary to the operating system this is also available to Oracle Net for local connections where the user process is on the same machine as the server This layering of Oracle Net on top of whatever is provided by your operating system gives Oracle platform independence You, as DBA, do not need to know anything about the underlying network; you configure Oracle Net to use whatever protocol has been configured by your network administrators You need not concern yourself with what is happening beneath TCP is, for better or worse, undoubtedly the most popular protocol worldwide, so that is the one used in the examples that follow The use of industry standard protocols means that there need be no dependency between the server-side and the client-side platforms There is no reason why, for example, a client on Windows cannot talk to a database on Unix As long as the platform can offer a TCP layer 4 interface, then Oracle Net can use it
Con gure and Manage the Oracle Network
With regard to conformance with the Open Systems Interconnection (or OSI) seven-layer model to which all IT vendors are supposed to comply, Oracle Net maps on to layers five, six, and seven: the session, presentation, and application layers The protocol adapters installed with the standard Oracle installation provide the crossover to layer four, the transport layer, provided by your operating system Thus Oracle Net is responsible for establishing sessions between the end systems once TCP (or whatever else you are using) has established a layer four connection The presentation layer functions are handled by the Oracle Net Two Task Common (or TTC) layer TCC is responsible for any conversions necessary when data is transferred between the user process and the server process, such as character set changes Then the application layer functions are the user and server processes themselves
Establishing a Session
When a user, through his/her user process, wishes to establish a session against an instance, he/she will issue a command something like
CONNECT SCOTT/TIGER@ORCL11G
Of course, if he/she is using a properly written user interface, he/she won t type in those words but will be prompted to enter the details into a logon screen but one way or another that is the command the user process will generate It is now time to go into what actually happens when that command is processed First, break down the command into its components There is a database user name ( SCOTT ), followed by a database password ( TIGER ), and the two are separated by a / as a delimiter Then there is an @ symbol, followed by a connect string, ORCL11G The @ symbol is an indication to the user process that a network connection is required If the @ and the connect string are omitted, then the user process will assume that the instance you wish to connect to is running on the local machine, and that the always-available IPC protocol can be used If the @ and a connect string are included, then the user process will assume that you are requesting a network connection to an instance on a remote machine though in fact, you could be bouncing off the network card and back to the machine on to which you are logged
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