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Note the semantics here The leading dollar sign shows that you are dereferencing; and, therefore, Perl knows that the array specification must be to locations within an array reference In fact, Perl automatically assumes you are dereferencing if you use pairs of brackets together Perl knows that this indicates a structure to a list of references, whether that s a hash or an array, so the infix operator (or block names) are implied This doesn t prevent you from using them if you want to The following lines are also equal:
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print $tictactoe->[2][2]; print $tictactoe->[2]->[2];
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The infix operator here tells Perl that you are dereferencing, so the leading dollar sign is not required But note that the following are wrong:
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In the first, you haven t specified the return format you still need to tell Perl that it s a scalar that you re dereferencing In the second, the dereferencing is implied, but you re trying to dereference the array embedded in a standard array, not an anonymous one Like many other similar features, the elimination of the dereference operator is a direct attempt to improve the overall readability of the code The first form, shown here,
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print $tictactoe->[2][2]; print $tictactoe->[2]->[2];
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looks cleaner and should appeal to C programmers, since this is the same format used in C for multidimensional arrays The other formats would perhaps make more sense to a hardened Perl programmer, and they help if you are particularly bothered about the notation of one reference point to another We ll need a more complex source for our next examples I ve used the /etc/passwd file here, since it s the most readily available for most people However, the principles will apply to any data you want to map into an array of arrays The individual rows of our array (the first dimension) will be each record; the individual fields will form the columns (the second dimension) The following script populates our database I ve assumed that the file is already open
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while(<PASSWD>) { chomp;
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Perl: The Complete Reference
push @passwd,[ split /:/ ]; }
This creates an array @passwd, and each field contains a reference to an array, the contents of which is the list of values returned by split Note the notation again here the square brackets indicate that you are returning a reference to an array To put the information directly into an array reference:
open(PASSWD,"/etc/passwd"); while(<PASSWD>) { push @{$passwd}, [ split /:/ ]; }
You could also set it more explicitly:
while(<PASSWD>) { chomp; foreach $field (split /:/) { push @{$passwd[$index]},$field; } $index++; }
This demonstrates another important point that carries through all nested references The call to push requires an array as its first element, and it must begin with @; so you must quote the reference to the nested array using block notation Furthermore, note the location of the index for the array reference: it s contained within the block quotes This is because Perl would see the subscript reference and assume it was returning a scalar, not an array, irrespective of the leading character you have supplied What the example does show is the addition of fields, individually, to the row of an array It uses push again, but there s no reason why you can t also track your location in the nested array:
10:
Complex Data Structures
while(<PASSWD>) { chomp; @fields = (); @fields = split /:/; foreach $field (0@fields) { $passwd[$index][$field] = $fields[$field]; } $index++; }
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You make sure you empty the array before you fill it with the information from split This prevents you from putting undefined data into the structure, since the assignment will only update fields, not actually empty them Then it s a case of assignments to the array of arrays Another point to note here is that if you create an entry in an index that doesn t currently exist within the structure (as with any other array), Perl will create the intervening elements, filling them with undef as it goes For example:
$passwd[120][0] = 'martinb';
Assuming $passwd has not already been defined or populated, it now contains a reference to an array 121 elements in size, the first 120 of which contain undef Now, if you turn to accessing the information, there are also complications You can t do this
print @passwd;
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