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Subroutines, Packages, and Modules
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power(base => 16, power => 3); # returns 16384 power(base => 16); # returns 256 power(power => 8); # returns 256 power(); # returns 4
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The order of the arguments is no longer an issue, which makes supporting default values and/or multiple options within a single subroutine significantly easier If you want to use this option, consider using -argument as the argument string That way you won t need to quote the hash key each time the preceding hyphen translates the bareword to a string
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The return value of any block, including those used in subroutines, is taken as the value of the last evaluated expression For example:
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sub myfunc { $_[0]+$_[1]; }
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The return value here is the result of the calculation You can also explicitly return a value using the return keyword:
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sub myfunc { if (@_) { return $_[0]+$_[1]; } else { return 0; } }
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When called, return immediately terminates the current subroutine and returns the value to the caller if you don t specify a value then the return value is undef
Perl: The Complete Reference
Error Notification
The easiest way to report an error within a subroutine is to return the undefined value undef this is universally accepted within Perl as notification of some form of failure and is also identified by any testing mechanism as a false (and therefore failure) value If you want to report the error directly within the function, then use die (see s 7 and 9) or use the carp function from the Carp module (see Appendix B)
Context
The context of a subroutine or statement is defined as the type of return value that is expected This allows you to use a single function that returns different values based on what the user is expecting to receive For example, the following two calls to the getpwent function return a list or a scalar, according to what was used in the assignation:
$name = getpwent(); ($name, $passwd, $uid, $gid, $quota, $comment, %gcos, $dir, $shell) = getpwent();
In the first case, the user expects a scalar value to be returned by the function, because that is what the return value is being assigned to In the second case, the user expects an array as the return value, again because a list of scalars has been specified for the information to be inserted into This can be confusing, since most other languages support only one type of return value In fact, it s very practical, because it reduces the amount of code required to achieve different results Here s another example, again from the built-in Perl functions, that shows the flexibility:
my $timestr = localtime(time);
In this example, the value of $timestr is now a string made up of the current date and time, for example, Thu Nov 30 15:21:33 2000 Conversely,
($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(time);
now the individual variables contain the corresponding values returned by localtime We can now use these values to build our own string, instead of relying on the default value returned in a scalar context In order to discover the context in which a function has been called, you use the wantarray function This returns true if the function has been called in a list context, and false otherwise Consider the following script, which prints a scalar or list-based message, according to how the hw function was called:
6:
Subroutines, Packages, and Modules
sub hw { if (wantarray) { return('Hello','World',"\n"); } else { return "Hello World\n"; } } $scalarmsg = hw(); $listmsg = join('--',hw()); print "Scalar is $scalarmsg"; print "List is $listmsg";
FUNDAMENTALS
The list context is implied here because the join function expects a list as the second argument If you run this program, you get this,
Scalar is Hello World List is Hello--World--
which we know to be correct and is the result we expected If you supply a hash, then the hash is translated into a list of key/value pairs Note that there is no equivalent wanthash function If you want to exchange and work with hashes in your subroutines on a hash level, use references (see the Passing Hashes to Subroutines section earlier in this chapter) You can force a function to return a scalar value with the scalar keyword This forces the context of the function to be recognized as a scalar, not a list, value To use it, just place the scalar function before the statement or expression that you want to be forced into scalar context:
my $time = scalar localtime;
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