qr code reader java download Section 122 Changes of State and the Laws of Thermodynamics in Objective-C

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Section 122 Changes of State and the Laws of Thermodynamics
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Hot reservoir at TH QH Refrigerator W
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The gas draws heat from the interior of the refrigerator, passes from the compressor through the condenser coils on the outside of the refrigerator, and cools into a liquid Thermal energy is transferred into the air in the room The liquid reenters the interior, vaporizes, and absorbs thermal energy from its surroundings The gas returns to the compressor and the process is repeated The overall change in the thermal energy of the gas is zero Thus, according to the first law of thermodynamics, the sum of the heat removed from the refrigerator s contents and the work done by the motor is equal to the heat expelled, as shown in Figure 12-13 Heat pumps A heat pump is a refrigerator that can be run in two directions In the summer, the pump removes heat from a house and thus cools the house In the winter, heat is removed from the cold outside air and transferred into the warmer house In both cases, mechanical energy is required to transfer heat from a cold object to a warmer one
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Cold reservoir at TL Figure 12-13 A refrigerator absorbs heat, QL, from the cold reservoir and gives off heat, QH, to the hot reservoir Work, W, is done on the refrigerator
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22 A gas balloon absorbs 75 J of heat The balloon expands but stays at the same temperature How much work did the balloon do in expanding 23 A drill bores a small hole in a 040-kg block of aluminum and heats the aluminum by 50 C How much work did the drill do in boring the hole 24 How many times would you have to drop a 050-kg bag of lead shot from a height of 15 m to heat the shot by 10 C 25 When you stir a cup of tea, you do about 0050 J of work each time you circle the spoon in the cup How many times would you have to stir the spoon to heat a 015-kg cup of tea by 20 C 26 How can the first law of thermodynamics be used to explain how to reduce the temperature of an object
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The Second Law of Thermodynamics
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Many processes that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics have never been observed to occur spontaneously Three such processes are presented in Figure 12-14 For example, the first law of thermodynamics does not prohibit heat flowing from a cold object to a hot object However, when hot objects have been placed in contact with cold objects, the hot objects have never been observed to become hotter Similarly, the cold objects have never been observed to become colder Entropy If heat engines completely converted thermal energy into mechanical energy with no waste heat, then the first law of thermodynamics would be obeyed However, waste heat is always generated, and randomly distributed particles of a gas are not observed to spontaneously arrange themselves in specific ordered patterns In the nineteenth century, French engineer Sadi Carnot studied the ability of engines to convert thermal energy into mechanical energy He developed a logical proof that even an ideal engine would generate some waste heat Carnot s result is best described in terms of a quantity called entropy, which is a measure of the disorder in a system
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12 Thermal Energy
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Consistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics but do not occur spontaneously
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Figure 12-14 Many processes that do not violate the first law of thermodynamics do not occur spontaneously The spontaneous processes obey both the first and second law of thermodynamics
Hot Q
Cold
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Heat engine
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Time
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When a baseball is dropped and falls due to gravity, it possesses potential and kinetic energies that can be recovered to do work However, when the baseball falls through the air, it collides with many air molecules that absorb some of its energy This causes air molecules to move in random directions and at random speeds The energy absorbed from the baseball causes more disorder among the molecules The greater the range of speeds exhibited by the molecules, the greater the disorder, which in turn increases the entropy It is highly unlikely that the molecules that have been dispersed in all directions will come back together, give their energies back to the baseball, and cause it to rise Entropy, like thermal energy, is contained in an object If heat is added to an object, entropy is increased If heat is removed from an object, entropy is decreased If an object does work with no change in temperature, the entropy does not change, as long as friction is ignored The change in entropy, S, is expressed by the following equation, in which entropy has units of J/K and the temperature is measured in kelvins
Q T The change in entropy of an object is equal to the heat added to the object divided by the temperature of the object in kelvins
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