qr code scanner java download Section 142 Wave Properties in Objective-C

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Section 142 Wave Properties
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Figure 14-6 Surface waves have properties of both transverse and longitudinal waves (a) The paths of the individual particles are circular (b)
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Surface waves Waves that are deep in a lake or ocean are longitudinal; at the surface of the water, however, the particles move in a direction that is both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of wave motion, as shown in Figure 14-6 Each of the waves is a surface wave, which has characteristics of both transverse and longitudinal waves The energy of water waves usually comes from distant storms, whose energy initially came from the heating of Earth by solar energy This energy, in turn, was carried to Earth by transverse electromagnetic waves from the Sun
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Measuring a Wave
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There are many ways to describe or measure a wave Some characteristics depend on how the wave is produced, whereas others depend on the medium through which the wave travels Speed How fast does a wave move The speed of the pulse shown in Figure 14-7 can be found in the same way as the speed of a moving car is determined First, measure the displacement of the wave peak, d, then divide this by the time interval, t, to find the speed, given by v d/ t The speed of a periodic wave can be found in the same way For most mechanical waves, both transverse and longitudinal, the speed depends only on the medium through which the waves move Amplitude How does the pulse generated by gently shaking a rope differ from the pulse produced by a violent shake The difference is similar to the difference between a ripple in a pond and an ocean breaker: they have different amplitudes You have learned that the amplitude of a wave is the maximum displacement of the wave from its position of rest, or equilibrium Two similar waves having different amplitudes are shown in Figure 14-8 A wave s amplitude depends on how it is generated, but not on its speed More work must be done to generate a wave with a greater amplitude For example, strong winds produce larger water waves than those formed by gentle breezes Waves with greater amplitudes transfer more energy
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Figure 14-7 These two photographs were taken 020 s apart During that time, the crest moved 080 m The velocity of the wave is 40 m/s
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Displacement
Whereas a small wave might move sand on a beach a few centimeters, a giant wave can uproot and move a tree For waves that move at the same speed, the rate at which energy is transferred is proportional to the square of the amplitude Thus, doubling the amplitude of a wave increases the amount of energy it transfers each second by a factor of 4
Wave A
Crest
Amplitude
Trough
Wavelength Rather than focusing on one point on a Wave B wave, imagine taking a snapshot of the wave so that you can see the whole wave at one instant in time Figure 14-8 shows each low point, called a trough, and each high point, called a crest, of a wave The shortest distance between points where the wave pattern repeats itself is called the wavelength Crests are spaced by one wavelength Each trough also is one wavelength from the next The Greek letter lambda, , represents wavelength Phase Any two points on a wave that are one or more whole wavelengths apart are in phase Particles in the medium are said to be in phase with one another when they have the same displacement from equilibrium and the same velocity Particles in the medium with opposite displacements and velocities are 180 out of phase A crest and a trough, for example, are 180 out of phase with each other Two particles in a wave can be anywhere from 0 to 180 out of phase with one another Period and frequency Although wave speed and amplitude can describe both pulses and periodic waves, period, T, and frequency, f, apply only to periodic waves You have learned that the period of a simple harmonic oscillator, such as a pendulum, is the time it takes for the motion of the oscillator to complete one cycle Such an oscillator is usually the source, or cause, of a periodic wave The period of a wave is equal to the period of the source In Figures 14-9a through 14-9d, the period, T, equals 004 s, which is the time it takes the source to complete one cycle The same time is taken by P, a point on the rope, to return to its initial phase
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