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Develop the ray model of light Predict the effect of distance on light s illumination Solve problems involving the speed of light
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ray model of light luminous source illuminated source opaque transparent translucent luminous flux illuminance
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Section 161 Illumination
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Figure 16-1 A ray is a straight line that represents the linear path of a narrow beam of light (a) A light ray can change direction if it is reflected (b) or refracted (c)
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Ray Model of Light
Isaac Newton, whose laws of motion you studied in 6, believed that light is a stream of fast-moving, unimaginably tiny particles, which he called corpuscles However, his model could not explain all of the properties of light Experiments showed that light also behaves like a wave In the ray model of light, light is represented as a ray that travels in a straight path, the direction of which can be changed only by placing an obstruction in the path, as shown in Figure 16-1 The ray model of light was introduced as a way to study how light interacts with matter, regardless of whether light is a particle or a wave This study of light is called ray optics or geometric optics Sources of light Rays of light come from sources of light Our major source of light is the Sun Other natural sources of light include flames, sparks, and even fireflies In the past 100 years, humans have been able to produce several other kinds of light sources Incandescent bulbs, fluorescent lamps, television screens, lasers, and tiny, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are each a result of humans using electricity to produce light What is the difference between sunlight and moonlight Sunlight, of course, is much, much brighter There also is an important fundamental difference between the two The Sun is a luminous source, an object that emits light In contrast, the Moon is an illuminated source, an object that becomes visible as a result of the light reflecting off it, as shown in Figure 16-2 An incandescent lamp, such as a common lightbulb, is luminous because electrical energy heats a thin tungsten wire in the bulb and causes it to glow An incandescent source emits light as a result of its high temperature A bicycle reflector, on the other hand, works as an illuminated source It is designed to become highly visible when it is illuminated by luminous automobile headlights
Light rays are red
Moon Illuminated source
Figure 16-2 The Sun acts as a luminous source to Earth and the Moon The Moon acts as an illuminated source to Earth (Illustration not to scale)
Earth
Luminous source
16 Fundamentals of Light
Figure 16-3 The transparent glass allows objects to be seen through it (a) The translucent lamp shade allows light to pass through, although the lightbulb source itself is not visible (b) The opaque tarp covers the statue, preventing the statue from being seen (c)
Illuminated sources are visible to you because light is reflecting off or transmitting (passing) through the object to your eyes Media, such as brick, that do not transmit light, but reflect some light, are opaque media Media that transmit light, such as air and glass, are transparent media Media that transmit light, but do not permit objects to be seen clearly through them, are translucent media Lamp shades and frosted lightbulbs are examples of objects that are made of translucent media All three types of media are illustrated in Figure 16-3 Transparent or translucent media not only transmit light, but they also can reflect a fraction of the light For example, you often can see your reflection in a glass window Quantity of light The rate at which light energy is emitted from a luminous source is called the luminous flux, P The unit of luminous flux is the lumen (lm) A typical 100-W incandescent lightbulb emits approximately 1750 lm You can think of the luminous flux as a measure of the rate at which light rays come out of a luminous source Imagine placing a lightbulb at the center of a 1-m-radius sphere, as shown in Figure 16-4 The lightbulb emits light in almost all directions The 1750 lm of luminous flux characterizes all of the light that strikes the inside surface of the sphere in a given unit of time Even if the sphere was 2 m in radius, the luminous flux of the lightbulb would be the same as for the 1-m-radius sphere, because the total number of light rays does not increase Once you know the quantity of light being emitted by a luminous source, you can determine the amount of illumination that the luminous source provides to an object, such as a book The illumination of a surface, or the rate at which light strikes the surface, is called the illuminance, E You can think of this as a measure of the number of light rays that strike a surface Illuminance is measured in lux, lx, which is equivalent to lumens per square meter, lm/m2 Consider the setup shown in Figure 16-4 What is the illuminance of the sphere s inside surface The equation for the surface area of a sphere is 4 r 2, so the surface area of this sphere is 4 (100 m)2 4 m2 The luminous flux striking each square meter of the sphere is 1750 lm/(4 m2) 139 lx At a distance of 100 m from the bulb, 139 lm strikes each square meter The illuminance of the inside of the sphere is 139 lx
Figure 16-4 Luminous flux is the rate at which light is emitted from a luminous source, whereas illuminance is the rate at which light falls on a surface
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