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Astronomy Connection Reading QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In ObjectiveC Using Barcode Control SDK for iPhone Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in iPhone applications. QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Encoder In ObjectiveC Using Barcode encoder for iPhone Control to generate, create QRCode image in iPhone applications. Section 181 Refraction of Light
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Generate QR Code In Visual Studio .NET Using Barcode encoder for VS .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET applications. Print QR In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode drawer for VS .NET Control to generate, create QRCode image in .NET framework applications. n2 Figure 182 Light moves from air to glass to air again (a) Light slows down and bends toward the normal when it enters a region of a higher index of refraction (b) Make Code 39 In ObjectiveC Using Barcode encoder for iPhone Control to generate, create Code 39 Full ASCII image in iPhone applications. Encode Barcode In ObjectiveC Using Barcode maker for iPhone Control to generate, create bar code image in iPhone applications. The wave model of light was developed almost 200 years after Snell published his research An understanding that light interacts with atoms when traveling through a medium, such that it moves more slowly than in a vacuum, was achieved three hundred years after Snell s work The wave relationship that you learned in 16 for light traveling through a vacuum, 0 c/f, can be rewritten as v/f, where v is the speed of light in any medium and is the wavelength The frequency of light, f, does not change when it crosses a boundary That is, the number of oscillations per second that arrive at a boundary is the same as the number that leave the boundary and transmit through the refracting medium So, the wavelength of light, , must decrease when light slows down Wavelength in a medium is shorter than wavelength in a vacuum What happens when light travels from a region with a high speed into one with a low speed, as shown in Figure 182a The diagram in Figure 182b shows a beam of light as being made up of a series of parallel, straight wave fronts Each wave front represents the crest of a wave and is perpendicular to the direction of the beam The beam strikes the surface at an angle, 1 Consider the triangle PQR Because the wave fronts are perpendicular to the direction of the beam, PQR is a right angle and QRP is equal to 1 Therefore, sin 1 is equal to the distance between P and Q divided by the distance between P and R sin The angle of refraction, PSR In this case Make Code 128A In ObjectiveC Using Barcode generation for iPhone Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in iPhone applications. Make Bar Code In ObjectiveC Using Barcode drawer for iPhone Control to generate, create bar code image in iPhone applications. 2, 1 UPCE Generation In ObjectiveC Using Barcode creation for iPhone Control to generate, create UPCE Supplement 5 image in iPhone applications. GS1128 Maker In None Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create GS1128 image in Software applications. PQ PR
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Decode UPCA Supplement 2 In Java Using Barcode decoder for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications. UPC  13 Creator In Java Using Barcode drawer for Java Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  13 image in Java applications. By taking the ratio of the sines of the two angles, PR is canceled, leaving the following equation: sin sin
RS PQ
Figure 182b is drawn such that the distance between P and Q is equal to the length of three wavelengths of light in medium 1, or PQ 3 1 In a similar way, RS 3 2 Substituting these two values into the previous equation and canceling the common factor of 3 provides an equation that relates the angles of incidence and refraction with the wavelength of the light in each medium sin sin
Using v/f in the above equation and canceling the common factor of f, the equation is rewritten as follows: sin sin
v2 v1
Snell s law also can be written as a ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction
sin sin
n1 n2
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Index of refraction Using the transitive property of equality, the previous two equations lead to the following equation: n1 n2 v2 v1
In a vacuum, n 1 and v c If either medium is a vacuum, then the equation is simplified to an equation that relates the index of refraction to the speed of light in a medium c v The index of refraction of a medium is equal to the speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in the medium Figure 183 Ray A is partially refracted and partially reflected (a) Ray B is refracted along the boundary of the medium and forms the critical angle (b) An angle of incidence greater than the critical angle results in the total internal reflection of Ray C, which follows the law of reflection (c) Index of Refraction n
Refracted ray
This definition of the index of refraction can be used to find the wavelength of light in a medium compared to the wavelength the light would have in a vacuum In a medium with an index of refraction n, the speed of light is given by v c/n The wavelength of the light in a vacuum is c/f Solve for frequency, and substitute f c/ 0 and v c/n into 0 v/f (c/n)/(c/ 0) 0/n, and thus the wavelength of light in a medium is smaller than the wavelength in a vacuum

