Section 241 Magnets: Permanent and Temporary in Objective-C

Encoding QR Code in Objective-C Section 241 Magnets: Permanent and Temporary

Section 241 Magnets: Permanent and Temporary
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242 Forces Caused by Magnetic Fields
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Relate magnetic induction to the direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field Solve problems involving magnetic field strength and the forces on currentcarrying wires, and on moving, charged particles in magnetic fields Describe the design and operation of an electric motor
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s you learned in the previous section, while Amp re was studying the behaviors of magnets, he noted that an electric current produces a magnetic field similar to that of a permanent magnet Because a magnetic field exerts forces on permanent magnets, Amp re hypothesized that there is also a force on a current-carrying wire when it is placed in a magnetic field
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Forces on Currents in Magnetic Fields
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The force on a wire in a magnetic field can be demonstrated using the arrangement shown in Figure 24-15 A battery produces current in a wire directly between two bar magnets Recall that the direction of the magnetic field between two magnets is from the north pole of one magnet to the south pole of the other magnet When there is a current in the wire, a force is exerted on the wire Depending on the direction of the current, the force on the wire either pushes it down, as shown in Figure 24-15a, or pulls it up, as shown in Figure 24-15b Michael Faraday discovered that the force on the wire is at right angles to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of the current Determining the force s direction Faraday s description of the force on a current-carrying wire does not completely describe the direction because the force can be upward or downward The direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field can be found by using the third right-hand rule This technique is illustrated in Figure 24-16 The magnetic field is represented by the symbol B, and its direction is represented by a series of arrows To use the third right-hand rule, point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the magnetic field, and point your thumb in the direction of the conventional (positive) current in the wire The palm of your hand will be facing in the direction of the force acting on the wire When drawing a directional arrow that is into or out of the page, direction is indicated with crosses and dots, respectively Think of the crosses as the tail feathers of the arrow, and the dots as the arrowhead Soon after Oersted announced his discovery that the direction of the magnetic field in a wire is perpendicular to the flow of electric current in the wire, Amp re was able to demonstrate the forces that current-carrying wires exert on each other Figure 24-17a shows the direction of the magnetic field around each of the current-carrying wires, which is determined by the first right-hand rule By applying the third right-hand rule to either wire, you can show why the wires attract each other Figure 24-17b demonstrates the opposite situation When currents are in opposite b directions, the wires have a F repulsive force between them
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third right-hand rule galvanometer electric motor armature
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Figure 24-15 Current-carrying wires experience forces when they are placed in magnetic fields In this case the force can be down (a), or up (b), depending on the direction of the current
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24 Magnetic Fields
Figure 24-16 The third right-hand rule can be used to determine the direction of force when the current and magnetic field are known
Force on a wire resulting from a magnetic field It is possible to determine the force of magnetism exerted on a current-carrying wire passing through a magnetic field at right angles to the wire Experiments show that the magnitude of the force, F, on the wire, is proportional to the strength of the field, B, the current, I, in the wire, and the length, L, of the wire in the magnetic field The relationship of these four factors is as follows: Force on a Current-Carrying Wire in a Magnetic Field F ILB
The force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field is equal to the product of magnetic field strength, the current, and the length of the wire
The strength of a magnetic field, B, is measured in teslas, T 1 T is equivalent to 1 N/A m Note that if the wire is not perpendicular to the magnetic field, a factor of sin is introduced in the above equation, resulting in F ILB sin As the wire becomes parallel to the magnetic field, the angle becomes zero, and the force is reduced to zero When 90 , the equation is again F ILB
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