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Describe the structure of the nuclear atom Compare and contrast continuous spectra and line-emission spectra Solve problems using orbital-radius and energy-level equations
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alpha particles nucleus absorption spectrum energy level ground state excited state principal quantum number
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Section 281 The Bohr Model of the Atom
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Many questions faced the researchers investigating the nature of the atom What caused the emission of light from atoms How were the electrons distributed in the atom Physicists and chemists from many countries searched for the solutions to this puzzle The results not only provided knowledge about the structure of the atom, but also a totally new approach to both physics and chemistry The history of the research into the nature of the atom is one of the most exciting stories of the twentieth century J J Thomson believed that a massive, positively charged substance filled the atom He pictured the negatively charged electrons as being distributed throughout this positively charged substance like raisins in a muffin Ernest Rutherford, along with laboratory collaborators Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, however, performed a series of experiments that showed the atom had a very different structure Rutherford s experiments made use of radioactive compounds that emitted penetrating rays Some of these emissions had been found to be massive, positively charged particles that moved at high speeds These particles, which were later named alpha particles, are represented by the symbol The -particles in Rutherford s experiments could be detected by the small flashes of light that were emitted when the particles collided with a zinc-sulfide-coated screen As shown in Figure 28-1, Rutherford directed a beam of -particles at an extremely thin sheet of gold foil Rutherford was aware of Thomson s model of the atom, and he expected only minor deflections of the -particles as they passed through the thin gold foil He thought that the paths of the massive, high-speed -particles would be only slightly altered as they passed through the evenly distributed positive charge making up each gold atom The test results amazed him While most of the -particles passed through the gold foil either undeflected or only slightly deflected, a few of the particles were scattered through very large angles Some were even deflected through angles larger than 90 A diagram of these results is shown in Figure 28-2 Rutherford compared his amazement to that of firing a 15-inch cannon shell at tissue paper and then having the shell bounce back and hit him
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Source of particles Beam of particles Deflected particles
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Figure 28-1 After bombarding metal foil with alpha particles, Rutherford s team concluded that most of the mass of the atom was concentrated in the nucleus
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Circular fluorescent screen
Gold foil
28 The Atom
Atoms of gold foil Nucleus
Figure 28-2 Most of the alpha particles directed at the thin sheet of gold foil passed through it without deflection One in 20,000, however, were deflected at large angles
Alpha particles
Using Coulomb s force law and Newton s laws of motion, Rutherford concluded that the results could be explained only if all of the atom s positive charge were concentrated in a tiny, massive central core, now called the nucleus Therefore, Rutherford s model of the atom is called the nuclear model Researchers have since determined that all the positive charge and more than 999 percent of the mass of the atom are contained in its nucleus The electrons, which do not contribute a significant amount of mass to the atom, are distributed outside of and far away from the nucleus Thus, the space occupied by the electrons defines the overall size, or diameter, of the atom Because the diameter of the atom is about 10,000 times larger than the diameter of the nucleus, the atom mostly is made up of empty space Emission spectra How are the electrons arranged around the nucleus of the atom One of the clues that scientists used to answer this question came from the study of the light emitted by atoms Recall from the previous chapter that the set of electromagnetic wavelengths emitted by an atom is called the atom s emission spectrum As shown in Figure 28-3, atoms of a gaseous sample can be made to emit light in a gas-discharge tube You probably are familiar with the colorful neon signs used by some businesses These signs work on the same principles as gas-discharge tubes do A gas-discharge tube consists of a low-pressure gas contained within a glass tube that has metal electrodes attached to each end The gas glows when high voltage is applied across the tube What interested scientists the most about this phenomenon was the fact that each different gas glowed with a different, unique color The characteristic glows emitted by several gases are shown in Figure 28-3
Figure 28-3 When high voltage is applied to a gas, the gas emits light, producing a unique glow Hydrogen gas glows magenta (a), mercury glows bright blue (b), and nitrogen glows rose-orange (c)
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