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291 Conduction in Solids
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lectronic devices depend not only on natural conductors and insulators, but also on materials that have been designed and produced by scientists and engineers working together This brief investigation into electronics begins with a study of how materials conduct electricity All electronic devices owe their origins to the vacuum tubes of the early 1900s In vacuum tubes, electron beams flow through space to amplify and control faint electric signals Vacuum tubes are big, require lots of electric power, and generate considerable heat They have heated filaments, which require the replacement of the tubes after one to five years In the late 1940s, solid-state devices were invented that could do the jobs of vacuum tubes These devices are made of materials, such as silicon and germanium, known as semiconductors The devices amplify and control very weak electric signals through the movement of electrons within a tiny crystalline space Because very few electrons flow in them and they have no filaments, devices made from semiconductors operate with a low power input They are very small, don t generate much heat, and are inexpensive to manufacture The estimated useful life of these devices is 20 years or more
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Objectives
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Describe electron motion in conductors and semiconductors Compare and contrast n-type and p-type semiconductors
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Vocabulary
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semiconductors band theory intrinsic semiconductors dopants extrinsic semiconductors
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Section 291 Conduction in Solids
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Band Theory of Solids
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You have learned about electric conductors and insulators In conductors, electric charges can move easily, but not in insulators When you examine these two types of materials at the atomic level, the difference in the way they are able to carry charges becomes apparent You learned in 13 that crystalline solids consist of atoms bound together in regular arrangements You also know from s 27 and 28 that an atom consists of a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons These electrons can occupy only certain allowed energy levels Under most conditions, the electrons in an atom occupy the lowest possible energy levels This condition is referred to as the ground state Because the electrons can have only certain energies, any energy changes that occur are quantized; that is, the energy changes occur in specific amounts Energy bands Suppose you could construct a solid by assembling atoms together, one by one You would start with an atom in the ground state At large interatomic spacings ( 08 nm) with no very near neighbors, the graph in Figure 29-1 shows two discrete energy levels for the atom As the solid crystal forms by moving atoms closer to the atom, the electric fields of these other neighboring atoms affect the energy levels of its electrons In the solid crystal, the result is that the ground state energy levels in each atom are split into multiple levels by the electric fields of all of its neighbors There are so many of these levels, and they are so close together, that they no longer appear as distinct levels, but as the energy bands shown in Figure 29-1 The lower energy or valence bands are occupied by bonding electrons in the crystal, and the higher energy or conduction bands are available for electrons to move from atom to atom Notice in Figure 29-1 that the atomic separations for crystalline silicon and crystalline carbon (diamond) translate to valence bands and conduction bands that are separated by energy gaps These gaps have no energy levels available for electrons They are called forbidden energy regions This description of valence and conduction bands, separated by forbidden energy gaps, is known as the band theory of solids and can be used to better understand electric conduction For example, the band diagram in
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Silicon Energy C Si
Figure 29-1 Energy levels of an atom are split apart when other atoms are brought closer, resulting in an energy gap between the valence and conduction bands
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