how to use barcode reader in asp.net c# Figure 30-4 Radioactive nuclei decay to more stable forms in Objective-C

Printing Denso QR Bar Code in Objective-C Figure 30-4 Radioactive nuclei decay to more stable forms

Figure 30-4 Radioactive nuclei decay to more stable forms
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Fraction of nuclei undecayed
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Remaining Nuclei as a Function of Time 10 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 2 3 4 5
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Number of half-lives
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Section 302 Nuclear Decay and Reactions
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Table 30-2
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Half-Lives of Selected Isotopes Element Hydrogen Carbon Cobalt Iodine Lead Polonium Polonium Uranium Uranium Plutonium Plutonium Isotope
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3H 1 14C 6 60Co 27 131I 53 212Pb 82 194Po 84 210Po 84 235U 92 238U 92 236Pu 94 242Pu 94
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Half-Life 123 years 5730 years 30 years 807 days 106 hours 07 seconds 138 days 71 108 years 451 109 years
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The half-lives of selected isotopes are shown in Table 30-2 If you know the original amount of a radioactive substance and its half-life, you can calculate the amount remaining after a given number of half-lives Half-Life remaining original
1 t 2
The amount of a radioactive isotope remaining in a sample equals the original amount times 1 to the t, where t is the 2 number of half-lives that have passed
, , ,
Half-lives of radioactive isotopes are used to date objects The age of a sample of organic material can be found by measur285 years ing the amount of carbon-14 remaining , 379 105 years The age of Earth was calculated based on the decay of uranium into lead The decay rate, or number of decays per second, of a radioactive substance is called its activity Activity is proportional to the number of radioactive atoms present Therefore, the activity of a particular sample also is reduced by one-half in one half-life Consider 131 I, with a 53 half-life of 807 days If the activity of a certain sample of iodine-131 is 8 105 decays/s, then 807 days later, its activity will be 4 105 decays/s After another 807 days, its activity will be 2 105 decays/s The activity of a sample also is related to its half-life The shorter the half-life, the higher the activity Consequently, if you know the activity of a substance and the amount of that substance, you can determine its half-life The SI unit for decays per second is a Becquerel (Bq)
Refer to Figure 30-4 and Table 30-2 to solve the following problems
24 A sample of 10 g of tritium, 3H, is produced What will be the mass 1 of the tritium remaining after 246 years 25 The isotope 238Np has a half-life of 20 days If 40 g of neptunium 93 is produced on Monday, what will be the mass of neptunium remaining on Tuesday of the next week 26 A sample of polonium-210 is purchased for a physics class on September 1 Its activity is 2 106 Bq The sample is used in an experiment on June 1 What activity can be expected 27 Tritium, 3H, once was used in some watches to produce a 1 fluorescent glow so that the watches could be read in the dark If the brightness of the glow is proportional to the activity of the tritium, what would be the brightness of such a watch, in comparison to its original brightness, when the watch is six years old
30 Nuclear Physics
Artificial Radioactivity
Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombardment with particles, protons, neutrons, electrons, or gamma rays The resulting unstable nuclei emit radiation until they are converted into stable isotopes The radioactive nuclei may emit alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, as well as neutrinos, antineutrinos, and positrons (A positron is a positively charged electron, 0e) 1 Artificially produced radioactive isotopes often are used in medicine and medical research In many medical applications, patients are given radioactive isotopes of elements that are absorbed by specific parts of the body A physician uses a radiation counter to monitor the activity in the region in question A radioactive isotope also can be attached to a molecule that will be absorbed in the area of interest, as is done in positron emission tomography, better known as the PET scan A PET scan of a brain is shown in Figure 30-5 Radiation often is used to destroy cancer cells These cells are more sensitive to the damaging effects of radiation because they divide more 60 often than normal cells Gamma rays from the isotope 27Co are used to treat cancer patients Radioactive iodine is injected to target thyroid cancer In a third method, particles produced in a particle accelerator are beamed into tissue in such a way that they decay in the cancerous tissue and destroy the cells
Radiation Treatment Gamma rays destroy both cancerous cells and healthy cells; thus, the beams of radiation must be directed only at cancerous cells
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