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The possibility of obtaining useful forms of energy from nuclear reactions was discussed in the 1930s The most promising results came from bombarding substances with neutrons In Italy, in 1934, Enrico Fermi and Emilio Segr produced many new radioactive isotopes by bombarding uranium with neutrons German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann showed in 1939 that the resulting atoms acted chemically like barium One week later, Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch proposed that the neutrons had caused a division of the uranium into two smaller nuclei, resulting in a large release of energy Such a division of a nucleus into two or more fragments is called fission The possibility that fission could be not only a source of energy, but also an explosive weapon, was immediately realized by many scientists Fission occurs when a nucleus is divided into two or more fragments, releasing neutrons and energy The uranium isotope, 235U, undergoes fission 92 when it is bombarded with neutrons The elements barium and krypton are typical results of fission The reaction is illustrated with the following equation
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The energy released by each fission can be found by calculating the masses of the atoms on each side of the equation In the uranium-235 reaction, the total mass on the right side of the equation is 0215 u smaller than that on the left The energy equivalent of this mass is 321 10 11 J, or 200 102 MeV This energy appears as the kinetic energy of the products of the fission
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Figure 30-5 For a PET scan, physicians inject a solution in which a radioactive isotope, such as 18F, is attached to a molecule 9 that will concentrate in the target tissues When the 18F decays, 9 it produces positrons, which annihilate nearby electrons, producing gamma rays The PET scanner detects the gamma rays A computer then makes a threedimensional map of the isotope distribution Here, a normal brain (top), and the brain of a person suffering from dementia (bottom) are contrasted
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Figure 30-6 The nuclear fission chain reaction of uranium-235 takes place in the core of a nuclear reactor
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The neutrons needed to cause the fission of additional 235U nuclei can 92 be the neutrons produced once the fission process is started If one or more of the neutrons cause a fission, that fission releases three more neutrons, each of which can cause more fission This continual process of repeated fission reactions caused by the release of neutrons from previous fission reactions is called a chain reaction The process is illustrated in Figure 30-6
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Figure 30-7 The glow is due to the Cerenkov effect, which occurs when high speed particles entering the water exceed the speed of light in water The electrons emit photons, which cause the water to glow when fuel rods are placed in it This glow is not the result of radioactivity
To create a controlled chain reaction and make use of the energy produced, the neutrons need to interact with the fissionable uranium at the right rate Most of the neutrons released by the fission of 235U atoms are 92 moving at high speeds These are called fast neutrons In addition, naturally occurring uranium consists of less than one percent 235U and more 92 than 99 percent 238U When a 238U nucleus absorbs a fast neutron, it does 92 92 not undergo fission, but becomes a new isotope, 239U The absorption of 92 neutrons by 238U keeps most of the neutrons from reaching the fissionable 92 235U atoms Thus, most neutrons released by the fission of 235U are unable 92 92 to cause the fission of another 235U atom 92 To control the reaction, the uranium is broken up into small pieces and placed in a moderator, a material that can slow down, or moderate, the fast neutrons When a neutron collides with a light atom it transfers momentum and energy to the atom In this way, the neutron loses energy The moderator thus slows many fast neutrons to speeds at which they can be absorbed more easily by 235U than by 238U The larger number of slow 92 92 neutrons greatly increases the probability that a neutron released by the fission of a 235U nucleus will cause another 235U nucleus to fission If there 92 92 is enough 235U in the sample, a chain reaction can occur To increase the 92 amount of fissionable uranium, the uranium may be enriched by adding more 235U Both types of uranium are used in nuclear reactors 92
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