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63 The fission of a uranium nucleus and the fusion
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of four hydrogen nuclei to produce a helium nucleus both produce energy a Which produces more energy b Does the fission of a kilogram of uranium nuclei or the fusion of a kilogram of hydrogen produce more energy c Why are your answers to parts a and b different
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47 Which are generally more unstable, small or large
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48 Which isotope has the greater number of protons,
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49 Define the term transmutation as used in nuclear
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Mastering Problems
301 The Nucleus
64 What particles, and how many of each, make up
an atom of 109Ag 47
51 What two quantities must always be conserved in
any nuclear equation (302)
52 Nuclear Power What sequence of events must
occur for a chain reaction to take place (302)
65 What is the isotopic symbol (the one used in
nuclear equations) of a zinc atom composed of 30 protons and 34 neutrons
53 Nuclear Power What role does a moderator play
in a fission reactor (302)
54 Fission and fusion are opposite processes How can
each release energy (302)
66 The sulfur isotope 32 S has a nuclear mass 16
55 High-Energy Physics Why would a linear
accelerator not work with a neutron (303)
of 3197207 u a What is the mass defect of this isotope b What is the binding energy of its nucleus c What is the binding energy per nucleon
30 Nuclear Physics
For more problems, go to Additional Problems, Appendix B
67 A nitrogen isotope, 12N, has a nuclear mass of 7
120188 u a What is the binding energy per nucleon b Does it require more energy to separate a nucleon from a 14N nucleus or from a 7 12N nucleus 14N has a mass of 1400307 u 7 7
2 77 During a fusion reaction, two deuterons, 1H, combine
to form a helium isotope, 3He What other particle 2 is produced
209Po 84
has a half-life of 103 years How long would it take for a 100-g sample to decay so that only 31 g of Po-209 was left
68 The two positively charged protons in a helium
nucleus are separated by about 20 10 15 m Use Coulomb s law to find the electric force of repulsion between the two protons The result will give you an indication of the strength of the strong nuclear force 69 The binding energy for 4He is 283 MeV Calculate 2 the mass of a helium isotope in atomic mass units
303 The Building Blocks of Matter
79 What would be the charge of a particle composed
of three up quarks
80 The charge of an antiquark is opposite that of
a quark A pion is composed of an up quark and an anti-down quark, ud What would be the charge of this pion
302 Nuclear Decay and Reactions
70 Write the complete nuclear equation for the alpha
decay of 222Rn 86
81 Pions are composed of a quark and an antiquark
Find the charge of a pion made up of the following a uu b du c dd
71 Write the complete nuclear equation for the beta
decay of 89Kr 36
82 Baryons are particles that are made of three quarks
Find the charge on each of the following baryons a neutron: ddu b antiproton: u ud
72 Complete each nuclear reaction
a b c d
225Ac 89 227Ra 88 65Cu 29 235U 92
4He _____ 2 0e _____ _____ 1 1n _____ 1p _____ 0 1 1n 96Zr 1n) 3(0 _____ 0 40
83 The synchrotron at the Fermi Laboratory has a
diameter of 20 km Protons circling in it move at approximately the speed of light in a vacuum a How long does it take a proton to complete one revolution b The protons enter the ring at an energy of 80 GeV They gain 25 MeV each revolution How many revolutions must they travel before they reach 4000 GeV of energy c How long does it take the protons to be accelerated to 4000 GeV d How far do the protons travel during this acceleration
73 An isotope has a half-life of 30 days What percent
of the original material will be left after a 60 days b 90 days c 12 days
74 In an accident in a research laboratory, a radioactive
isotope with a half-life of three days is spilled As a result, the radiation is eight times the maximum permissible amount How long must workers wait before they can enter the room
84 Figure 30-21 shows tracks in a bubble chamber
What are some reasons one track might curve more than another
75 When a boron isotope,
is bombarded with protons, it absorbs a proton and emits a neutron a What element is formed b Write the nuclear equation for this reaction c The isotope formed is radioactive and decays by emitting a positron Write the complete nuclear equation for this reaction
11B, 5
76 The first atomic bomb released an energy equivalent
of 20 101 kilotons of TNT One kiloton of TNT is equivalent to 50 1012 J Uranium-235 releases 321 10 11 J/atom What was the mass of the uranium-235 that underwent fission to produce the energy of the bomb
Figure 30-21
physicsppcom/chapter_test
30 Assessment
Fermilab/Peter Arnold, Inc
Mixed Review
85 Each of the following nuclei can absorb an
particle Assume that no secondary particles are emitted by the nucleus Complete each equation a b
14N 7 27Al 13 4He 2 4He 2
Table 30-3
Radioactive Decay Measurements Time (min) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Counts (per 5 min) 987 375 150 70 40 25 18
_____ _____
has a half-life of 15 h What fraction of a sample would be left after 60 h production of deuterium, 2H(2014102 u), from 1 a neutron and a proton Write the complete fusion reaction and find the amount of energy released
211Rn 86
87 One of the simplest fusion reactions involves the
88 A 232U nucleus, mass 92
2320372 u, decays to 228 Th, 90 mass 2280287 u, by emitting an particle, mass 40026 u, with a kinetic energy of 53 MeV What must be the kinetic energy of the recoiling thorium nucleus
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