// # to do copy // # of points in array // # of times to retry in C#

Drawing PDF 417 in C# // # to do copy // # of points in array // # of times to retry

// # to do copy // # of points in array // # of times to retry
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CHAPTER 38 DEEPER INTO C#
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public delegate Point[] CloneFunction(Point[] a); public static void TimeFunction(Point[] arr, CloneFunction func, string label) { Point[] arrCopy = null; long start; long delta; double min = 5000.0d; // big number; // do the whole copy retryCount times, find fastest time for (int retry = 0; retry < retryCount; retry++) { start = Counter.Value; for (int iterate = 0; iterate < iterations; iterate++) arrCopy = func(arr); delta = Counter.Value - start; double result = (double) delta / Counter.Frequency; if (result < min) min = result; } Console.WriteLine("{0}: {1:F3} seconds", label, min); } public static void Main() { Console.WriteLine("Points, Iterations: {0} {1}", points, iterations); Point[] arr = new Point[points]; for (int index = 0; index < points; index++) arr[index] = new Point(3, 5); TimeFunction(arr, new CloneFunction(Point.ClonePointArrayMemcpy), "Memcpy"); TimeFunction(arr, new CloneFunction(Point.ClonePointArrayUnsafe), "Unsafe"); TimeFunction(arr, new CloneFunction(Point.ClonePointArray), "Baseline"); } } The timer function uses a delegate to describe the clone function, so it can use any of the clone functions. It uses a Counter class, which provides access to the system timers. The accuracy of this class will vary based upon the version of Windows that s being used. As with any benchmarking, the initial state of memory is important. To help control this, TimeFunction() executes each method five times and prints only the shortest time. Typically, the first iteration is slower; the CPU cache isn t ready yet, so subsequent times get faster. The times listed in Table 38-1 were generated on a 600MHz Pentium III laptop running Windows 2000
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Professional, but they were generated with beta software, so the performance probably isn t indicative of the performance of the final product. The program was run with several different values for points and iterations.
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Table 38-1. Benchmark Results for Different Array Cloning Techniques
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p=10, i=2,000,000
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0.775 0.754 1.101
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2.266 2.266 2.121
For small arrays, the unsafe code is the fastest, and for large arrays, the system call is the fastest. The system call loses on smaller arrays because of the overhead of calling into the native function. The interesting part is that the unsafe code isn t a clear win over the baseline code. The lessons in all this are that unsafe code doesn t automatically mean faster code and it s important to benchmark when doing performance work.
XML Documentation
Keeping documentation synchronized with the actual implementation is always a challenge. One way of keeping it up-to-date is to write the documentation as part of the source and then extract it into a separate file. C# supports an XML-based documentation format. It can verify that the XML is well-formed, do some context-based validation, add some information that only a compiler can get consistently correct, and write it out to a separate file. You can divide C# XML support into two sections: compiler support and documentation convention. In the compiler support section, the tags are specially processed by the compiler for verification of contents or symbol lookup. The remaining tags define the .NET documentation convention and are passed through unchanged by the compiler.
Compiler Support Tags
The compiler-support tags are a good example of compiler magic; they re processed using information that s known only to the compiler. The following example illustrates how to use the support tags: // file: employee.cs using System; namespace Payroll { /// /// /// /// <summary> The Employee class holds data about an employee. This class contains a <see cref="String">string</see> </summary>
CHAPTER 38 DEEPER INTO C#
public class Employee { /// <summary> /// Constructor for an Employee instance. Note that /// <paramref name="name">name2</paramref> is a string. /// </summary> /// <param name="id">Employee id number</param> /// <param name="name">Employee Name</param> public Employee(int id, string name) { this.id = id; this.name = name; } /// <summary> /// Parameterless constructor for an employee instance /// </summary> /// <remarks> /// <seealso cref="Employee(int, string)">Employee(int, string)</seealso> /// </remarks> public Employee() { id = -1; name = null; } int id; string name; } } The compiler performs special processing on four of the documentation tags. For the param and paramref tags, it validates that the name referred to inside the tag is the name of a parameter to the function. For the see and seealso tags, it takes the name passed in the cref attribute and looks it up using the identifier lookup rules so the name can be resolved to a fully qualified name. It then places a code at the front of the name to tell what the name refers to. For example, the following: <see cref="String"> becomes this: <see cref="T:System.String"> String resolved to the System.String class, and T: means that it s a type.
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The seealso tag is handled in a similar manner. For example, the following: <seealso cref="Employee(int, string)"> becomes this: <seealso cref="M:Payroll.Employee.#ctor(System.Int32,System.String)"> The reference was to a constructor method that had an int as the first parameter and a string as the second parameter. In addition to the preceding translations, the compiler wraps the XML information about each code element in a member tag that specifies the name of the member using the same encoding. This allows a post-processing tool to easily match up members and references to members. The generated XML file from the preceding example is as follows (with a few word wraps): < xml version="1.0" > <doc> <assembly> <name>employee</name> </assembly> <members> <member name="T:Payroll.Employee"> <summary> The Employee class holds data about an employee. This class contains a <see cref="T:System.String">string</see> </summary> </member> <member name="M:Payroll.Employee.#ctor(System.Int32,System.String)"> <summary> Constructor for an Employee instance. Note that <paramref name="name2">name</paramref> is a string. </summary> <param name="id">Employee id number</param> <param name="name">Employee Name</param> </member> <member name="M:Payroll.Employee.#ctor"> <summary> Parameterless constructor for an employee instance </summary> <remarks> <seealso cref="M:Payroll.Employee.#ctor(System.Int32,System.String)" >Employee(int, string)</seealso> </remarks> </member> </members> </doc>
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The post-processing on a file can be quite simple; you can add an XSL file that specifies how the XML should be rendered, which leads to the display shown in Figure 38-1 (in a browser that supports XSL).
Figure 38-1. XML file in Internet Explorer with formatting specified by an XSL file Note that XML documentation isn t designed to be a full solution to generating documentation. The final documentation should be generated by a tool that uses reflection to examine a class and combines the information from XML documentation to the information from reflection to produce the final documentation.
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