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In addition to using asserts, you can use the Debug and Trace classes to send useful information to the current debug or trace listeners. This is a useful adjunct to running in the debugger, because it s less intrusive and can be enabled in released builds to generate log files. The Write() and WriteLine() functions send output to the current listeners. These are useful in debugging but not really useful in released software, since it s rare to want to log something all the time. The WriteIf() and WriteLineIf() functions send output only if the first parameter is true. This allows the behavior to be controlled by a static variable in the class, which you could change at runtime to control the amount of logging that s performed. For example:
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CHAPTER 39 DEFENSIVE PROGRAMMING
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// compile with: csc /r:system.dll file_1.cs using System; using System.Diagnostics; class MyClass { public MyClass(int i) { this.i = i; } [Conditional("DEBUG")] public void VerifyState() { Debug.WriteLineIf(debugOutput, "In VerifyState"); Debug.Assert(i == 0, "Bad State"); } static public bool DebugOutput { get { return(debugOutput); } set { debugOutput = value; } } int i = 0; static bool debugOutput = false; } class Test { public static void Main() { Debug.Listeners.Clear(); Debug.Listeners.Add(new TextWriterTraceListener(Console.Out)); MyClass c = new MyClass(1); c.VerifyState(); MyClass.DebugOutput = true; c.VerifyState(); } }
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CHAPTER 39 DEFENSIVE PROGRAMMING
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This code produces the following output: Fail: Bad State In VerifyState Fail: Bad State
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The previous example showed how to control logging based upon a bool variable. The drawback of this approach is that there must be a way to set that variable within the program. It d be more useful to have a way to set the value of such a variable externally. The BooleanSwitch and TraceSwitch classes provide this feature. You can control their behavior at runtime by either setting an environment variable or setting a registry entry.
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The BooleanSwitch class encapsulates a simple Boolean variable, which is then used to control logging: // file=boolean.cs // compile with: csc /D:DEBUG /r:system.dll boolean.cs using System; using System.Diagnostics; class MyClass { public MyClass(int i) { this.i = i; } [Conditional("DEBUG")] public void VerifyState() { Debug.WriteLineIf(debugOutput.Enabled, "VerifyState Start"); if (debugOutput.Enabled) Debug.WriteLine("VerifyState End"); } BooleanSwitch debugOutput = new BooleanSwitch("MyClassDebugOutput", "Control debug output"); int i = 0; }
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CHAPTER 39 DEFENSIVE PROGRAMMING
class Test { public static void Main() { Debug.Listeners.Clear(); Debug.Listeners.Add(new TextWriterTraceListener(Console.Out)); MyClass c = new MyClass(1); c.VerifyState(); } } This example creates an instance of BooleanSwitch as a static member of the class, and this variable controls whether output happens. If this code runs, it produces no output, but you can control the debugOutput variable by setting the value in the configuration file for the assembly. This file is named <assembly-name>.config, which for this example means it s called boolean.exe.config, and it has to be in the same directory as the assembly. Not surprisingly, the config file uses XML to store its values. Here s the config file for the example: <configuration> <system.diagnostics> <switches> <add name="MyClassDebugOutput" value="1" /> </switches> </system.diagnostics> </configuration> Running the code using this file produces the following results: VerifyState Start VerifyState End The code in VerifyState shows two ways of using the variable to control output. The first usage passes the flag off to the WriteLineIf() function and is the simpler one to write. It s a bit less efficient, however, since the function call to WriteLineIf() is made even if the variable is false. The second version, which tests the variable before the call, avoids the function call and is therefore slightly more efficient.
TraceSwitch
It s sometimes helpful to use something other than a Boolean to control logging. It s common to have different logging levels, each of which writes a different amount of information to the log.
CHAPTER 39 DEFENSIVE PROGRAMMING
The TraceSwitch class defines five levels of information logging. They re defined in the TraceLevel enum. Table 39-1 shows the possible values of TraceLevel.
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