how to create barcodes in visual basic .net Conversions in Visual C#.NET

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Conversions
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n C#, conversions are divided into implicit and explicit conversions. Implicit conversions are those that will always succeed; the conversion can always be performed without data loss.1 For numeric types, this means the destination type can fully represent the range of the source type. For example, a short can be converted implicitly to an int, because the short range is a subset of the int range.
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Numeric Types
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For the numeric types, there are widening implicit conversions for all the signed and unsigned numeric types. Figure 15-1 shows the conversion hierarchy. If a path of arrows can be followed from a source type to a destination type, there s an implicit conversion from the source to the destination. For example, there are implicit conversions from sbyte to short, from byte to decimal, and from ushort to long. Note that the path taken from a source type to a destination type in the figure doesn t represent how the conversion happens; it merely indicates it can be done. In other words, the conversion from byte to long happens in a single operation, not by converting through ushort and uint: class Test { public static void Main() { // all implicit sbyte v = 55; short v2 = v; int v3 = v2; long v4 = v3; // explicit to "smaller" types v3 = (int) v4; v2 = (short) v3; v = (sbyte) v2; } }
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1. Conversions from int, uint, or long to float, and conversions from long to double may result in a loss of precision but won t result in a loss of magnitude.
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CHAPTER 15 CONVERSIONS
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Figure 15-1. C# conversion hierarchy
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Conversions and Member Lookup
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When considering overloaded members, the compiler may have to choose between several functions. Consider the following: using System; class Conv { public static void Process(sbyte value) { Console.WriteLine("sbyte {0}", value); } public static void Process(short value) { Console.WriteLine("short {0}", value); } public static void Process(int value) { Console.WriteLine("int {0}", value); } }
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CHAPTER 15 CONVERSIONS
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class Test { public static void Main() { int value1 = 2; sbyte value2 = 1; Conv.Process(value1); Conv.Process(value2); } } The preceding code produces the following output: int 2 sbyte 1 In the first call to Process(), the compiler could match the int parameter to only one of the functions the one that took an int parameter. In the second call, however, the compiler had three versions to choose from, taking sbyte, short, or int. To select one version, it first tries to match the type exactly. In this case, it can match sbyte, so that s the version that gets called. If the sbyte version didn t appear there, it d select the short version, because a short can be converted implicitly to an int. In other words, short is closer to sbyte in the conversion hierarchy and is therefore preferred. The preceding rule handles many cases, but it doesn t handle the following one: using System; class Conv { public static void Process(short value) { Console.WriteLine("short {0}", value); } public static void Process(ushort value) { Console.WriteLine("ushort {0}", value); } } class Test { public static void Main() { byte value = 3; Conv.Process(value); } }
CHAPTER 15 CONVERSIONS
Here, the earlier rule doesn t allow the compiler to choose one function over the other, because there are no implicit conversions in either direction between ushort and short. In this case, there s another rule that kicks in, which says that if there s a single-arrow implicit conversion to a signed type, it will be preferred over all conversions to unsigned types. Figure 15-1 represents this graphically with dotted arrows; the compiler will choose a single solid arrow over any number of dotted arrows.
Explicit Numeric Conversions
Explicit conversions those using the cast syntax are the conversions that operate in the opposite direction from the implicit conversions. Converting from short to long is implicit; therefore, converting from long to short is an explicit conversion. Viewed another way, an explicit numeric conversion may result in a value that s different from the original: using System; class Test { public static void Main() { uint value1 = 312; byte value2 = (byte) value1; Console.WriteLine("Value2: {0}", value2); } } The preceding code results in the following output:
In the conversion to byte, the least significant (lowest valued) part of the uint is put into the byte value. In many cases, the programmer either knows that the conversion will succeed or depends on this behavior.
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