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For a single server system which exhibits a Poisson arrival distribution and a constant service time distribution, Eq (101) reduces to Ws = or Ws = 2 (1 ) 2 ( ) (106) (107) When demand is less than capacity, the following expression gives the average line length N over the period being analyzed and consists of those in service and those waiting for service at a processor 1 N = Ws + (108) When > 1 there is statistical delay plus excess delay which is defined by a deterministic model For design purposes it is sufficient to estimate delays in such a system in which the statistical delay Ws is computed from the appropriate equation above with = 090 and the excess delay We is added to this from the equation below to compute total processor delay The rationale for computing the statistical delay with = 09 is that in reality as demand approached capacity the delay cannot become infinite as airline or airport operating practices will limit delay by utilizing additional servers We = T ( k ) 2 k (109) where We = delay when the demand exceeds the service rate T = time period during which the demand exceeds the service rate = total demand on the system of processors k = number of processors = service rate of a processor It is usually assumed that the time required to reduce the demand to capacity T is about onehalf of the time period being analyzed Typically when demand exceeds capacity, the operator of the facility will increase the number of operating service facilities to alleviate the growth in both waiting time and queue lengths However, the extent to which this is done is a function of airline operating policies and the availability of additional manpower and physical facilities The average line length over the period analyzed N including those in service and those waiting for service; when demand exceeds, capacity can be estimated by the following equation 1 N = Ws + W e + (1010)

