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The economic and financial feasibility of alternative plans for a new airport or expansion of an existing site must be clearly demonstrated by the planner Even if the selected alternative is shown to be economically feasible, then also it is necessary to show that the plan will generate sufficient revenues to cover annual costs of capital investment, administration, operations, and maintenance This must be determined for each stage or phase of development detailed in the airport master plan An evaluation of economic feasibility requires an analysis of benefits and costs A comparison of benefits and costs of potential capital investment programs indicates the desirability of a project from an economic point of view The economic criterion used in evaluating an aviation investment is the total cost of facilities, including quantifiable social costs, compared with the value of the increased effectiveness measured in terms of total benefits The costs include capital investment, administration, operation, maintenance, and any other costs that can be quantified The benefits include a reduction in aircraft and passenger delays, improved operating efficiency, and other benefits The costs and benefits are usually determined on an annual basis
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There are a number of techniques for comparing benefits with costs Most of them consider the time value of money based on an appropriate discount rate which reflects the opportunity cost of capital The discount rate is a value by which a unit of money received in the future is multiplied to obtain its present value or present worth In other words a cost incurred in 2010 has a different economic value from that of the same item incurred in 2015 If the time value of money is not considered, the ratio of benefits to costs is made for each year by merely dividing the benefits in a particular year by the cost of the project in that year A project is considered economically feasible when the ratio of the benefits to costs is greater than unity, that is, the benefits exceed the costs The larger the ratio, the more attractive is the project from an economic standpoint A ratio can also be obtained by comparing the present value of benefits with the present value of costs This approach recognizes the time value of money Another approach is to plot the net present value (NPV) for each year against time The net present value is defined as the present value of benefits minus the present value of costs The financing of capital improvements for airports is discussed in Chap 13 In the early years of airport development, substantial capital improvement programs were financed at the local level by sale of general obligation bonds backed by the taxing power of the community As air transportation became mature and the requirements of the community for capital spending programs increased, airports began to utilize revenue bonds as a source of financing A financial feasibility study is therefore an analysis to determine if bonds are marketable at reasonable interest rates It also includes the feasibility of other forms of financing The analysis requires a thorough evaluation of the revenues to be developed by a proposed improvement and the corresponding costs Usually this is done in a traffic and earnings study performed over the planning horizon In such a study, the forecast of demand is utilized and rates and charges established for the various revenue categories This results in annual revenue projections To make revenue bonds attractive to buyers a typical airport revenue bond should show an expected coverage by net revenues (gross revenues minus costs) of at least 125 times the debt service requirements If the analysis indicates that the revenues will be insufficient, revisions in the scheduling or scope of the proposed development may have to be made or the rates and charges to the users of the airport may require adjustment
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