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mpn =
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where mpn = MPN noise penalty, dB Q = Q-factor [refer to Eq (363) for relationship to BER] mpn = RMS received noise power due to MPN, W k = MPN factor between 0 and 1 R = signal transmission rate, Tbps = laser s RMS spectral width [ = 0 425 FWHM , see Eq (E4)], nm CD = chromatic dispersion coefficient, ps/(nm km) L = fiber length, km The k factor is difficult to determine but can be estimated at 08 as a conservative value for MLM lasers MPN can also occur for SLM lasers that have significantly large side nodes and where the side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is less than 20 dB Another common laser type is called the distributed feedback (DFB) laser Its basic function is the same as the FP laser However, the DFB resonance cavity is a Bragg grating tuned to the dominant longitudinal mode frequency, see Eq (61) The effect is that all nondominant mode frequencies are suppressed, resulting in a single-mode laser, see Fig 104 The DFB laser is referred to as a single longitudinal mode (SLM) laser The laser s spectral width now becomes the same as the laser s line width and is very narrow A variation of this laser type is when the Bragg grating is placed at the ends of the resonance cavity replacing the mirrors The resulting effect of one single longitudinal mode output is the same This type of laser is referred to as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser Typical DFB and DBR lasers unmodulated spectra widths are from 5 to 50 MHz This laser type has a much
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FIGURE 104
Unmodulated DFB laser diode spectrum
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longer dispersion limit than the FP laser and is better suited for longhaul and DWDM applications This laser type is more complex than an FP laser and therefore higher priced Another manufacturing concern is that the SLM laser s operating wavelength tends to drift with temperature This is corrected by incorporating complex temperature compensation circuitry, which is necessary for DWDM applications but further increases the unit s price A third laser type is the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) It also operates as an SLM laser It was introduced as a lower cost alternative to the DFB lasers VCSEL lasers emit light perpendicular to the semiconductor wafer plane surface as opposed to the edge emitting lasers (FP, DFB, DBR) discussed previously The resonance cavity is much shorter than that of DFB lasers, approximately 1 m This results in wide mode spacing of approximately 45 THz At the ends of the resonance cavity are Bragg gratings similar to the DBR laser The resulting spectral width of the gain curve is much less than 45 THz, at approximately 400 GHz Therefore, only one mode can exist and the laser operates as an SLM laser Wide spectral widths of the gain curve can result in MLM laser operation The advantage of this laser type is its small size and low power consumption It is available for both long-haul transmissions and DWDM systems Laser diodes have a much larger modulation bandwidth than LEDs This is because the LED bandwidth is determined by the spontaneous emission carrier recombination lifetime of the semiconductor material, see Eq (101) This is the average time the electrons exist in the conduction band before spontaneously moving back to the valence band In a laser the stimulated emission carrier recombination lifetime is the average time the electrons exist in the conduction band before being forced back to the valence band by photon stimulation For laser stimulation emission to occur, the stimulation lifetime needs to be less than the spontaneous emission lifetime Otherwise, the electrons will recombine during spontaneous emissions and no electrons will be left in the conduction band to be stimulated This results in a much larger laser modulation bandwidth
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