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Pnoisei = average (interpolated) noise power at the i th channel bound by NEB, mW Pnoise( i+ ITU/2) = noise power centered at i+ ITU/2 bound by NEB, mW Pnoise( i ITU/2) = average noise power centered at i ITU/2 bound by NEB, mW ITU = ITU channel spacing, nm Bm = noise equivalent bandwidth NEB, nm Br = resolution bandwidth RBW, nm Special precaution is required if measuring OSNR on the filtered end or demux side (drop side) of a DWDM, OADM, or ROADM,6 see Fig 35 Due to DWDM, OADM, or ROADM filtering effects, a false noise floor may appear in an OSA view that can be mistaken as the correct noise floor, see Figs 36 and 37 This can result in an incorrect automatic OSNR measurement The correct measurement can be made by manually setting the OSA noise markers to the proper noise floor The noise hump on both sides of the signal can completely disappear for wide band signals such as in 10 or 40 Gbps signals where demultiplexer filters are the same width as the signal itself This would make OSNR measurement problematic because the in-band noise still exists but it would be difficult to locate for correct OSNR measurement One method to located the in-band noise floor would be to polarize the signal at the source Then the polarized signal can be filtered out by a polarizer at the OSA, which would leave the noise floor level available for measurement Some OSAs are available to overcome this OSNR measurement issue using this or other methods OSA user manuals and specifications should be consulted for more information
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Using proper OSA resolution bandwidth (RBW) for signal measurement is important to ensure the best possible accuracy If RBW is too
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FIGURE 35
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Power
Noise
OSNR
Wavelength (nm)
FIGURE 36
OSA ber span view of multiplexed DWDM signals
DWDM filter shape Power
False OSNR
Signal
Noise hump Noise shape due to DWDM filter
Noise 2 Wavelength (nm)
FIGURE 37
Individual signal after lter or DWDM demux
True OSNR Noise
Three
Power
Signal power in RBW
Missed signal power
0 RBW
0 Wavelength (nm)
Interpolated noise level
FIGURE 38
RBW too narrow for signal measurement
narrow, part of the signal power will be missed during the measurement, as shown in Fig 38 If RBW is too wide, then accurate noise measurement near the signal cannot be performed and unwanted noise may be measured with signal power The ideal RBW should be wide enough to encompass the entire modulated signal down to the noise floor, see Fig 39 Often the manufacturer will specify the proper RBW to be used for their listed transceiver OSNR It is important to note that laser spectral width varies with the modulation rate; the higher the rate the wider the signal spectral width Table 31 shows the minimum recommended5 RBW that will cause less than 01 dB measurement error for various transmission rates and NRZ modulation
OSNR Link Calculation
When an optical amplifier is added to a fiber link, a small amount of ASE noise is added to the signal channel Although the amount of noise generated by one amplifier is small and likely not consequential to the system OSNR, additional amplifiers will not only add their own noise power to the signal channel but will also amplify the noise from all upstream amplifiers A limit is reached where an additional amplifier will result in the degeneration of the link s OSNR past the receiver s minimum specification This will result in a less desirable BER since it is directly dependent on OSNR
Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
Power
Signal power in RBW
0 0 RBW Wavelength (nm)
FIGURE 39
Correct RBW for signal measurement
Modulation Rate 40 Gbps 10 Gbps 25 Gbps TABLE 31
Minimum RBW for Less than 01 dB Error 1 nm 02 nm 009 nm
Minimum RBW for Less than 1 dB Error 01 nm 003 nm
Minimum RBW for Different Signal Modulation Rates
The OSNR at any point in a fiber link is equal to the signal power divided by the noise power, see Eq (312) For a link with optical amplifiers, ASE noise is the dominant source If high gain Raman amplifiers are deployed, double Rayleigh scattering (DRS) noise can also be significant The following OSNR equations7,8 only consider ASE noise as dominant in a link, see Eqs (321) to (324) OSNR = OSNR = Pout PASE gPin 2nsp hfBo ( g 1)
(321)
(322)
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