barcode scanner vb.net textbox Pin 1 Psource 3 dBm EDFA booster NF1 = 5 dB G1 = 10 dB in Software

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Pin 1 Psource 3 dBm EDFA booster NF1 = 5 dB G1 = 10 dB
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180 km span loss dB
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Pin 3 OSNRF Prec EDFA pre-amp NF3 = 5 dB G3 = 10 dB
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DRA Eq NF2 = 2 dB G2 = 10 dB
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FIGURE 315 Hybrid Raman/EDFA OSNR example
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First we determine the signal power levels along the span into the EDFAs and Raman amplifiers Signal power into the EDFA booster is as follows: Pin1 = Psource Pin 1 = 3 0dBm Signal power into the equivalent Raman amplifier is as follows: Pin2 = Pin 1 + G1 span Pin 2 = 3 0 + 10 0 45 0 Pin2 = 3 8 0dBm Signal power into the EDFA pre-amplifier is as follows: Pin 3 = Pin2 + G2 Pin3 = 38 0 + 10 0 Pin 3 = 28 0dBm Signal power into the receiver is as follows: Prec = Pin 3 + G3 Prec = 28 0 + 10 0 Prec = 18 0dBm Using Table B3 in Appendix B to calculate OSNR for this link, the results are as follows: OSNR output of EDFA booster 1 is 492 dB OSNR output of Raman amplifier is 219 dB OSNR output of EDFA pre-amp and receiver OSNR is 202 dB The received signal OSNR of 202 dB is greater than the transceiver minimum specified OSNR of 20 dB If the Raman amp is not used then OSNR drops to 15 dB, which is significantly below the receiver specified OSNR and the link would not meet BER performance Also, this EDFA pre-amp could not be used because its specified minimum input power level is 30 dBm, and the signal would be at 38 dBm EDFAs with minimum input levels below 30 dBm are not common Example 34 Determine the maximum number of noise-limited optical amplifier spans that can be achieved for 10, 40, and 100 Gbps NRZ transmission systems Assume all spans are 100 km in length Fiber attenuation is 022 dB/km and each span s total loss is 22 dB Fiber maximum launch power limited by nonlinear effects is 20 mW (13 dBm) cumulative for the entire link Therefore maximum launch power per span is 20/N mW or 13 10 log(N) dBm Also assume transceiver OSNR for a BER of 1E-12 is 20 dB for a 10 Gbps system, 26 dB for a 40 Gbps system, and 30 dB for a 100 Gbps system Provide results for a total EDFA solution and total Raman solution EDFA noise figure is 6 dB and Raman noise figure is 0 dB The resolution bandwidth Br is 01 nm (125 GHz)
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Using Eq (331) we can determine the maximum number of spans required as follows: OSNR F dB = 158 9 + PsourcedBm NF 10 log(Br ) 1 0 log N 10 log N = 158 9 + PsourcedBm NF 10 log(Br ) OSNR We must also include the maximum launch power per span limit due to nonlinear effects; therefore, the maximum number of spans in an amplifier link is as follows N = 10 ^ ((158 9 + PsourcedBm NF 10 log(Br ) OSNR )/20) For the EDFA system the results are as follows: 10 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 14 spans 40 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 7 spans 100 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 4 spans For the Raman system the results are as follows: 10 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 28 spans 40 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 14 spans 100 Gbps transmission is limited to a maximum of 8 spans
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Bit Error Ratio
Bit error ratio (BER) (also known as bit error rate) can be defined as the ratio of the number of erroneous bits received to the total number of bits transmitted, see Eq (343) BER = E n
(343) (344)
n = TR where BER = bit error ratio E = number of erroneous bits received n = number of bits transmitted T = time to transmit n bits, seconds R = transmission rate, bits/second
A BER test is often requested as the final quality acceptance test for a newly installed digital circuit It is also useful in testing and debugging existing system transmission bit errors Typical BER values for circuits range from 10 9 to 10 13 with 10 12 being the most common for telecom circuits and is the ITU-T13 standard for SONET/SDH transmission systems A 10 12 BER means that one bit is received in error for every terabit of transmitted data bits Depending on the transmission rate, it may take quite a while to
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