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calculated using Eq (326) as described earlier in this chapter When calculating EDFA input power levels only link loss is considered (fiber loss and component loss) Power penalties are not included since they are added in this Q budget Then Eq (384)20,21 can be used to convert the receiver OSNR value to a mean linear Q-factor knowing the extinction ratio, receiver electrical bandwidth, and optical
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channel bandwidth This equation assumes the data format is NRZ Equation (366) is used to convert the linear Q-factor to a dB value
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1 2 ex OSNR
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r r 1 1 1 + 4 ex OSNR 1 + ex + 1 + 4 ex OSNR ex 1 rex 1 rex 1 rex 1 + rex
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1 ex =
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Q = mean Q-factor assuming NRZ signal format, linear OSNR = link OSNR, linear Bo = optical channel bandwidth typically set by DWDM bandwidth, GHz Be = receiver electrical bandwidth available from transceiver specifications, GHz 1 ex = extinction ratio power penalty inverse, linear rex = extinction ratio (inverse) available from transceiver specifications
2 The next nine lines (L21 through L29) represent linear and nonlinear propagation impairment penalties Their explanations are found in various chapters in this book 3 Mode partition noise typically is a concern only for MLM lasers, but can also be significant for SLM lasers where SMSR is less than 20 dB See Chap 10 for details 4 WDM channel passband ripple, channel passband misalignment between WDMs can result in additional signal loss during laser wavelength drift, which can lead to Q-factor degradation WDM ripple value is available from manufacturer specifications and is typically less than 05 dB 5 Manufacturing and environmental impairment penalty covers variations in population distribution of components due to imperfect manufacturing processes It also covers system degradation due to environmental condition variations such as temperature and pressure This value is difficult to determine exactly but is estimated at 2 dB20 for some systems 6 For submarine systems, the supervisory commands are sent to subsea EDFAs and other equipment by low frequency amplitude modulation of the optical signal This modulation amplitude is small compared to the data signal but does result in a small Q-factor penalty
7 The fiber link Q-factor value is calculated by subtracting the sum of lines L2 to L6 from line L1 the mean Q-factor 8 Optical transceivers are not perfect and introduce their own impairments, including noise and jitter The back to back Q-factor is measured with the transceivers connected locally with each other by two short fiber jumpers and a proper attenuator in between to ensure source power does not overload the receiver 9 The total link Q-factor is calculated22 using the fiber link Q-factor and the transceiver back-to-back Q-factor as shown in Eq (386) 1 1 Qtotal = 2 + 2 Qfiber Qbb
where Qfiber = Q-factor due to the fiber link as shown in line L7 Qbb = Q-factor of the transceivers connected back to back using a short length of fiber jumper cable, from line L8 10 This line represents the link BER calculated using the total link Q-factor from line L9, see Eqs (362), (363), or (364) BER = Q 1 erfc 2 2
11 If forward error correct is used then with FEC BER input/output curves the new BER is determined and shown on this line 12 This line is the new effective Q-factor with FEC that is converted from FEC BER line L11 Rearranged Eq (396) as shown below can be used to determine this value QFEC = 20 log(Q(BER FEC )) + 10 log(Rd ) where Rd is the FEC redundancy ratio, and Rd <1 13 This line shows the required link Q-factor for the planned link BER 14 This line is the beginning of life (BoL) Q-factor margin calculated by subtracting line L13 from L12 15 This line accounts for fiber link system aging We generally assume all fiber link components will be replaced as they fail Therefore, the main aging component that remains for the entire life span is the fiber optic cable Typical values used for fiber aging22 over a 25-year life span are 0003 dB/km for hydrogen degradation plus 0002 dB/km for gamma radiation degradation (if applicable)
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