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WDMs and Couplers
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Input common fiber 1, 2, 3, 4
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1 2 4 3 Output channel fibers
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FIGURE 65
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Array waveguide grating simple WDM
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Array waveguide grating (AWG) WDM consists of an input and output coupler and an array of varying lengths of optical waveguides, see Fig 65 The input coupler splits the optical signal arriving from the common fiber equally among the arrayed waveguides Since the waveguides are of different lengths, each waveguide optical signal experiences a different phase shift This creates an interference pattern at the output coupler with intensity maximums The direction of the maximums is dependent on the optical wavelength that allows the individual wavelengths to be directed to separate channel fibers Array waveguide gratings can be manufactured on a single substrate forming a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) This technology is cost effective for high channel counts Notable characteristics of AWG technology are as follows: 1 AWG waveguides are birefringent and therefore add PMD to the link 2 AWGs have a constant insertion loss of 4 to 5 dB relatively independent of the number of channels4 3 AWG are very temperature sensitive,4 ~10 pm/ C, and may require active thermal regulation 4 Although AWG technology is passive, the need for thermal regulation results in an active WDM 5 AWG can operate bidirectionally 6 AWG can be connected as a WDM or OADM 7 AWG WDMs are available with channel spacing of 125 to 200 GHz 8 AWGs are suitable for WDMs with large channel counts (>40 channels) A thin-film filter (TFF) is a glass filter that passes a narrow band of optical spectrum and reflects the rest, similar to a FBG, see Fig 66a
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Six
Reflected light Transmitted light Power
Incident angle Power Incident light
Multiple layer coatings Glass substrate
a Thin-film filter (TFF) Output aggregate 1, 2, 3
1, 2
Nonreflective end
In 3 b Three-channel TFF WDM mux Input aggregate 1, 2, 3 2, 3
In 2
In 1
Nonreflective end
Out 1 c Three-channel TFF WDM demux
Out 2
Out 3
FIGURE 66
Thin- lm lter simple WDM
It contains multiple layers of very thin high- and low-refractive index materials on a glass base The thickness of the layers determines which wavelengths will be reflected and which will be transmitted through the filter As in FBG filters, thin-film filters are arranged in sequence as shown in Fig 66b and c in a WDM to achieve the lowest possible link loss TFFs have good overall characteristics for WDMs Notable characteristics of TFF technology are as follows: 1 TFFs have low temperature sensitivity,5 ~03 pm/ C 2 TFFs can operate bidirectionally
WDMs and Couplers
3 TFFs have low insertion loss, typically less than 1 dB per filter 4 Simple TFF WDMs are completely passive 5 TFFs in WDMs are connected in series, which increases insertion loss as channel count increases 6 TFFs can be connected as a WDM or OADM 7 TFF WDMs are available with channel spacing greater than 50 GHz 8 TFFs can be made tunable by changing the incident light angle of incidence5 9 TFFs are suitable for WDMs with less than 40 channels and greater than or equal to 50 GHz channel spacing A diffraction grating filter (DF) has a periodic variation of a property that causes the incident light to be reflected or transmitted For a reflective grating, periodic reflective ridges are formed on the surface filter s The grating reflects incident light into its component wavelengths at different angles in accordance6 with Eq (62), see Fig 67a For a transmission grating, incident light passes through the grating and is diffracted in accordance with Eq (63), see Fig 67b The channel fibers are properly positioned in the unit to receive the spatially separated wavelengths m j f s = sin + sin j m j f s = sin j
(62) (63)
Grating lens focuses separate wavelengths into channel fibers 1 Channel 2 fibers 3 Common fiber 1, 2, 3
j
Reflective grating
a Diffraction grating filter (DF) reflection demux Transmission grating 1 Common fiber 1, 2, 3
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