THE PSQL META-COMMANDS in .NET framework

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THE PSQL META-COMMANDS
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The psql meta-commands are predefined shortcuts in psql that save you from typing more complex SQL commands Each meta-command is preceded by a backslash (thus they are sometimes referred to as slash commands) The commands are combinations of one or more characters referencing specific SQL commands You can see a list
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of the available meta-commands from the psql prompt by typing \ The psql metacommands are divided into the following categories based on their functions: General meta-commands Query buffer meta-commands Input/output meta-commands Informational meta-commands Formatting meta-commands Copy and large object meta-commands The following sections describe the psql meta-commands
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psql General Meta-commands
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The psql general meta-commands display information about the psql system These commands are listed and described in Table 5-2 There are a couple of handy meta-commands included in this set The most obvious is the \q meta-command, which is used to exit psql when you are done The \c metacommand is great if you need to switch to another database while already logged in Remember that you can only connect to one database at a time (at least within the same session) When you use the \c meta-command, PostgreSQL uses the same user account
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Command \c dbname \cd dir \copyright \encoding encoding \h statement \q \set name value \timing \unset name \! command
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Description Connect to different database Change to a different working directory on the local system Display the PostgreSQL copyright information Display or set the current psql encoding Display help on a SQL statement Exit (or quit) psql Set variable value (same as -v command-line option) Display total time a command takes Unset variable value Execute command on host system
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Table 5-2 psql General Meta-commands
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The psql Program
you are currently connected as (which has already been authenticated) to connect to the specified database If you do not have privileges to connect to the database, your previous database connection is restored Here is an example of connecting to a database from within psql
C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\82\bin>psql -q test fred Password for user fred: test=> \c postgres You are now connected to database "postgres" postgres=>
Notice that the prompt changes to reflect the database in use Another meta-command in this general group that is handy is \set This is used to set values to variables used in the psql session There are default variables that are preset within the psql sessions, and you can also create your own variables that can be used within the psql session You can use this feature to save you from lots of typing To view the variables that are currently set, enter the \set meta-command by itself with no parameters:
test=> \set VERSION = 'PostgreSQL 820 on i686-pc-mingw32, compiled by GCC gccexe (GCC) 342 (mingw-special)' AUTOCOMMIT = 'on' VERBOSITY = 'default' PROMPT1 = '%/%R%# ' PROMPT2 = '%/%R%# ' PROMPT3 = '>> ' DBNAME = 'test' USER = 'fred' PORT = '5432' ENCODING = 'UTF8' test=>
The PROMPT1, PROMPT2, and PROMPT3 variables allow you to set the prompts used in the psql session to descriptive text, giving you hints about where you are in the database process The reason for the three prompts is the three levels of input modes in psql: PROMPT1 is for normal prompt input PROMPT2 is for entering continued SQL lines PROMPT3 is for manually entering data in a COPY statement As you can see in the \set variable output, the prompts use substitution characters (characters preceded by a percent sign, %) to represent variable information Table 5-3 lists and describes the prompt variable substitution characters that can be used
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Substitution Character Description %~ %# %> %/ %m %M %n %R %:variable Inserts the database name, or a tilde (~) if it is the default database Inserts a pound sign (#) if the user is a superuser, or a greater-than sign (>) if the user is a normal user Inserts the TCP port number of the PostgreSQL server Inserts the name of the database you are connected to Inserts the nonqualified hostname of the PostgreSQL server Inserts the fully qualified hostname of the PostgreSQL server Inserts the user account currently logged in Inserts mode character: = for normal mode, ^ for SQL completion mode, and ! if disconnected Inserts the psql variable variable
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