.net barcode reader sdk The psql Copy and Large Object Meta-commands in Visual Studio .NET

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Table 5-9 The psql Copy and Large Object Meta-commands
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PostgreSQL 8 for Windows
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data table that references the large object The LOBOID points to the location of the large object in the pg_largeobject table
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THE PSQLRCCONF FILE
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You may have noticed that the -X psql option specifies that psql will not process the psqlrc startup file The psqlrc startup file allows you to place commonly used metacommands and SQL statements in a file that is processed every time you start psql In the Windows environment, the standard PostgreSQL psqlrc file has been renamed to psqlrcconf and is located in somewhat of an odd place To find it, you must know the value of the APPDATA Windows environment variable To find this value, use the Windows echo command:
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C:\Documents and Settings\RICH>echo %APPDATA% C:\Documents and Settings\RICH\Application Data C:\Documents and Settings\RICH>
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To display the value of the environment variable, place percent signs (%) around it within the echo statement Now that you know the value of the APPDATA environment variable, the psqlrcconf file is located in the following path:
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%APPDATA%\postgresql\psqlrcconf
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The PostgreSQL installer doesn t create this file automatically, so you have to manually create it using the Windows Notepad application The psqlrcconf file is a standard text file that contains the meta-commands and SQL statements you want to automatically run Here is an example of a psqlrcconf file:
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\set cust 'store"Customer"' \set prod 'store"Product"'
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Now every time psql is run, these variables will automatically be set:
C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\82\bin>psql -q test fred Password for user fred: test=> select * from :cust; CustomerID | LastName | FirstName | Address | City | State | Zip | Phone + + + + + + + BLU001 | Blum | Rich | 123 Main | Chicago | IL | 60633 | 555-1234 (1 row) test=>
In the psql session, the cust variable was already set for us by the psqlrcconf file To reference the variable, just precede it with a colon This can be a great typing saver, especially if you (or your customers) choose to have long schema and table names
5:
The psql Program
IMPORTING DATA WITH PSQL
4 showed how the pgAdmin III program could help us insert data into our tables 6 shows how to use the SQL INSERT statement to insert data into tables as well Unfortunately, both methods are somewhat tedious if you must enter lots of data PostgreSQL provides a great solution to this problem Many times you will already have data provided in spreadsheets that must be entered into the tables Instead of having to manually retype all of the information, PostgreSQL provides a way for us to automatically push the data into tables This is a great feature to have available The \COPY meta-command is used to copy data from files directly into tables Each row of data in the file relates to a record of data for the table The data in the row must be in the same order as the table columns You can determine the order of the table columns by using the \d meta-command, as shown earlier in this chapter in the Informational Meta-commands section The format of the \copy commands is
\copy tablename from filename [using delimiters 'delim' with null as 'string']
The tablename value must be the full table name In my version of psql, it appears that you cannot use a variable name in the \copy command The filename value must include the full pathname for the data file if it is not located in the same directory you started psql from By default, the \copy command assumes column data is separated by a tab character If your data uses any other character as a separator, you must use the USING DELIMITERS option to specify it Be careful when specifying a delimiter character You must ensure that the character is not found within the normal data If it is, the \copy command will not parse the column data correctly Also, by default the \copy command assumes that blank column data entries are empty strings, and not the special NULL character To enter a NULL character, use a \N value, or specify the NULL character to use in the WITH NULL option These days, it is common to receive from customers data within Microsoft Excel spreadsheets Using the \copy command, it is easy to import this data directly into your PostgreSQL tables Before using the \copy command, you must convert the Excel spreadsheet data to a format that \copy can read This is accomplished by saving the spreadsheet in either the Text (tab-delimited) or CSV (comma-delimited) format The following is an example of a comma-delimited text file:
BLU002,Blum,Barbara,879 Oak,Gary,IN,46100,555-4321 BLU003,Blum,Katie,342 Pine,Hammond,IN,46200,555-9242 BLU004,Blum,Jessica,229 State,Whiting,IN,46300,555-0921
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