Object Disposal in .NET

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Object Disposal
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SPWeb, SPSite, and SPSiteAdministration objects can sometimes take up large
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amounts of memory, so using any of these objects in PowerShell requires proper memory management Normally, instances of these objects obtained through cmdlets such as Get-SPWeb are disposed of automatically at the end of the pipeline, but this does not happen to instances stored in variables The Start-SPAssignment and Stop-SPAssignment cmdlets were introduced to spare script authors the need to dispose of each such object individually Instead, you can associate multiple objects with an assignment store, and then dispose of them all correctly and efficiently with one command
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Dispose Method
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If you want to do a straightforward task, such as change the description of a site, use the cmdlets available, which dispose of the objects at the end of the pipeline Here is an example:
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PS > $url = "http://SPServer01" PS > Get-SPWeb -Identity $url | Set-SPWeb -Description "Hello"
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If you want to change properties that are not available through the Set-SPWeb cmdlet, such as enabling or disabling the tree view on a single site, the simplest way is to store an instance of an SPWeb object in a variable, change the TreeViewEnabled
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property, use the Update() method, and finally use the Dispose() method when the change is committed to dispose of the object Here is an example of this approach:
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PS PS PS PS > > > > $spWeb = Get-SPWeb -Identity $url $spWebTreeViewEnabled = $True $spWebUpdate() $spWebDispose()
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The Start-SPAssignment and Stop-SPAssignment Cmdlets
In the previous example, we disposed of the object using the Dispose() method As mentioned earlier, it is also possible to dispose of objects using the StartSPAssignment and Stop-SPAssignment cmdlets There are basically three levels of assignments: No assignment Applies when an object of the type SPWeb, SPSite, or SPSiteAdministration is not assigned to a variable and is disposed of automatically Simple assignment All objects are assigned to the global assignment store Advanced assignment Objects are assigned to named stores and disposed of when the specific store is disposed In the following example, we store an object of the type SPWeb in a variable and dispose of it using a simple assignment
PS PS PS PS PS > > > > > Start-SPAssignment -Global $spWeb = Get-SPWeb -Identity $url $spWebTreeViewEnabled = $True $spWebUpdate() Stop-SPAssignment -Global
When iterating through multiple sites in a site collection, the simple assignment lets you associate multiple objects with an assignment store, and then dispose of them all correctly and efficiently with a single command, as shown in this example:
PS PS PS >> >> >> >> PS > Start-SPAssignment -Global > $spSite = Get-SPSite -Identity $url > $spSite | Get-SPWeb -limit All | ForEach-Object { $spWeb = $_ $spWebTreeViewEnabled = $True spWebUpdate() } > Stop-SPAssignment -Global
Here, we first use the Start-SPAssignment cmdlet with the Global switch parameter Then we iterate through multiple sites in a site collection and change the TreeViewEnabled property on each site When the last site is processed, we dispose of the objects using the Stop-SPAssignment cmdlet
7:
Flow Control and Object Disposal
The previous example might seem like a good way to update multiple sites and handle the disposal with a few simple cmdlets But suppose that the site collection contains a thousand sites An instance object for each site would then be stored in the global assignment store, and would not be disposed of until the final site was updated This is obviously not a good approach for large site collections A better way when iterating through large site collections is to use the advanced assignment when storing objects returned from cmdlets in variables and using the Dispose() method to dispose of objects stored in variables created in a loop, as demonstrated in this example:
PS PS PS >> >> >> >> >> PS > $spAssignment = Start-SPAssignment > $spSite = Get-SPSite -Identity $url -AssignmentCollection $spAssignment > $spSite | Get-SPWeb -limit All | ForEach-Object { $spWeb = $_ $spWebTreeViewEnabled = $True spWebUpdate() $spWebDispose() } > Stop-SPAssignment $spAssignment
Here, we assign the instance object returned from the Get-SPSite cmdlet to an advanced assignment store Then we iterate through each site in the site collection using the ForEach-Object cmdlet In the script block, we store the current object in a variable and change a property When we are finished with the object, we call the Dispose() method to immediately dispose of the object before handling the next object passed to the ForEach-Object cmdlet Finally, when the ForEach-Object cmdlet has processed all objects in the pipeline, we use Stop-SPAssignment to dispose of the object assigned to the $spAssignment variable
Summary
In this chapter, we covered flow control and looping You also saw examples on how and when to dispose of objects using Windows PowerShell Conditional statements The if/elseif/else branches execution based on a condition The switch statement lets you use multiple conditions and supports pattern matching Looping statements The for loop iterates through a collection of objects The while and do/While loops execute as long as condition evaluates True foreach- and ForEach-Object The foreach loop stores the entire collection in memory before processing while the ForEach-Object cmdlet processes one object at the time Object disposal objects of the type SPWeb, SPSite or SPSiteAdministration require proper memory management so consider disposing of them correctly
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