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Functions, Scripts, and Remoting
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PowerShell for Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrators
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his chapter completes the introduction to Windows PowerShell in SharePoint 2010 by covering three important components: functions, execution policies, and scripts We will also look at running Windows PowerShell remotely
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Functions are used in most programming and scripting languages A function is a named block of code that can be referred to from within Windows PowerShell When a function s name is called, the list of statements contained in the function is executed A function may accept input in the form of arguments, the values of which can then be used by the code inside the function The output from a function can be stored in a variable, passed to another function, passed to a cmdlet, or written to one of the output streams A function is declared with the keyword function, and the associated code is placed within a script block Here is an example of a basic function:
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PS > function Hello { >> "Hello $env:username" >> } >> PS > Hello Hello nigo
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When we call the function Hello, the block of code contained in the function is executed, and the output is returned to the session A function also accepts arguments, as this example shows:
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PS > function foo { $args } PS > foo 1 2 3 1 2 3
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This function uses the automatic variable $args to return the arguments passed to the function When we call the function and pass the arguments 1, 2, and 3, they are returned to the session Like cmdlets, functions can have parameters One way to define a parameter is to place a variable within parentheses after the function s name Here is an example of a function with two named parameters:
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PS >> >> >> >> > function username ($firstname, $lastname) { "FirstName: $firstname" "LastName: $lastname" }
8:
Functions, Scripts, and Remoting
The two named parameters to the function are $firstname and $lastname When we call the function, each argument passed to the function will be bound to the corresponding parameter If we simply type two arguments after we call the function, the arguments will bind to the corresponding parameter based on the argument s position
PS > username Niklas Goude FirstName: Niklas LastName: Goude
You can also bind the arguments to a named parameter by typing the parameter s name before the argument:
PS > username -firstname Niklas -lastname Goude FirstName: Niklas LastName: Goude
This way, you do not need to enter the arguments in positional order For example, you can input the last parameter first:
PS > username -lastname Goude -firstname Niklas FirstName: Niklas LastName: Goude
By adding a type to a named parameter, you can control the type of argument that the function accepts Here is an example:
PS > function addition ([int]$val1, [int]$val2) { $val1 + $val2 } PS > addition 2 3 5
If we try to input a string value to this function, it returns an error
PS > addition 2 "three" addition : Cannot process argument transformation on parameter 'val2' Cannot convert value "three" to type "SystemInt 32" Error: "Input string was not in a correct format" At line:1 char:9 + addition <<<< 2 "three" + CategoryInfo : InvalidData: (:) [addition], ParameterBindin mationException + FullyQualifiedErrorId : ParameterArgumentTransformationError,addition
You can also create switch parameters that can either evaluate to True or False Switch parameters do not require any input; you can simply type the function s name followed by the name of the switch parameter Here is an example:
PS > function TV([switch]$on) { >> if($on) { "The television is on" }
PowerShell for Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrators
>> else { "The television is off" } >> } PS > TV The television is off PS > TV -on The television is on
When we call the function TV without entering the switch parameter s name, the variable $on is set to False, and The television is off is returned If we do type the switch parameter s name, the variable $on is set to True, and The television is on is returned You can add other types of named parameters to a function as well In the next example, we create a named parameter of the type Systemuri to check if a URL is valid
PS > function Check-Url([uri]$url) { >> if($urlAbsoluteUri -ne $Null -and $urlScheme -match 'http|https') { >> $true >> } else { >> $false >> } >> }
The Check-Url function has one parameter: $url When we call the function, the argument passed to the function needs to be bound to the corresponding parameter, which can happen either by the parameter s name or position If we simply type the argument value after the function s name, the argument will be bound to the parameter based on the argument s position Since we have only one parameter in this example, the argument will be bound to the $url parameter It is also possible to specify the type of parameter the function will accept (if there are multiple parameters, type information will also be used in the binding process, after the name and position) Notice how we use the type SystemUri an object representation of a uniform resource identifier (URI), which, according to Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN), is a compact representation of a resource available to your application on the intranet or Internet We then check if the value of its AbsoluteURI property is not null and that the Scheme property value (which represents the protocol) contains either http or https If the condition evaluates to true, True is returned; if not, False is returned This is a quick way of testing if a URL supplied is in the correct format We can call the function by typing its name followed by the URL that we want to check
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