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Surface of earth Ground currents 2-16 Distortion of vertically polarized electric field by lossy ground resistance
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Table 2-1 Sample soil conductivity values
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Type of soil Salt water Fresh water Pastoral hills Marshy, wooded Rocky hills Sandy Cities Dielectric constant 81 80 14 20 12 12 14 10 3 5 Conductivity (siemens/meter) 5 0001 003 001 00075 10 0002 0001 Relative quality Best Very poor Very good Average/poor Poor Poor Very poor
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The wavefront of a surface wave is tilted because of the losses in the ground that tend to retard the wavefront s bottom (also in Fig 2-16) The tilt angle is a function of the frequency, as shown in Table 2-2
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Table 2-2 Tilt angle as a function of frequency
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Frequency (kHz) 20 200 2,000 20,000 Tilt angle ratio 207 104 64 25 Earth/seawater (degrees) 43/208 134/013 323/05 35/138
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Surface-wave attenuation is a function of frequency, and increases rapidly as frequency increases For both forms of the ground wave, reception is affected by these factors: wavelength, height of both the receiving and transmitting antennas, distance between antennas, and both terrain and weather along the transmission
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EM wave propagation phenomena 29 path In addition, the surface wave is affected by the ground losses in Table 2-1 Because of the ground loss effects, the surface wave is attenuated at a much faster rate than the inverse square law Ground-wave propagation frequency effects The frequency of a radio signal in large measure determines its surface-wave behavior In the very low-frequency (VLF) band (<300 kHz), ground losses are small for vertically polarized signals, so medium-distance communications (up to several hundred miles) are possible In the medium-wave band (300 to 3000 kHz, including the AM broadcast band), distances of 1000 mi are possible with regularity especially at night In the highfrequency (HF) band, ground losses are more considerable, so the surface-wave distance reduces drastically It is possible, in the upper end of the HF band (3000 to 30,000 kHz) for surface-wave signals to die out within a few dozen miles This phenomenon is often seen in the 15- and 10-m amateur radio bands, as well as the 11-m (27-MHz) Citizen s Band Stations only 20 mi apart cannot communicate, but both can talk to a third station across the continent via ionospheric skip Thus, the two stations close together must have a station more than 2000 mi away relay messages between them Tropospheric propagation The troposphere is the portion of the atmosphere between the surface of the earth and the stratosphere (or about 4 to 7 mi above the surface) Some older texts group tropospheric propagation with ground-wave propagation, but modern practice requires separate treatment The older grouping overlooks certain common propagation phenomena that simply don t happen with space or surface waves Refraction is the mechanism for most tropospheric propagation phenomena The dielectric properties of the air, which are set mostly by the moisture content (Fig 2-17), are a primary factor in tropospheric refraction Recall that refraction occurs in both light or radio-wave systems when the wave passes between mediums of differing density Under that situation, the wave path will bend an amount proportional to the difference in density Two general situations are typically found especially at UHF and microwave frequencies First, because air density normally decreases with altitude, the top of a beam of radio waves typically travels slightly faster than the lower portion of the beam As a result, those signals refract a small amount Such propagation provides slightly longer surface distances than are normally expected from calculating the distance to the radio horizon This phenomenon is called simple refraction, and was discussed in a preceding section A special case of refraction called superrefraction occurs in areas of the world where warmed land air goes out over a cooler sea (Fig 2-18) Examples of such areas have deserts that are adjacent to a large body of water: the Gulf of Aden, the southern Mediterranean, and the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California are examples VHF/UHF/microwave communications up to 200 mi are reported in such areas The second form of refraction is weather-related Called ducting, this form of propagation (Fig 2-19) is actually a special case of superrefraction Evaporation of sea water causes temperature inversion regions to form in the atmosphere that is, layered air masses in which the air temperature is greater than in the layers below it (Note: air temperature normally decreases with altitude, but at the boundary with an
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