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410 Microwave waveguides and antennas
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The isotropic antenna
3 2 Wire mesh reflecting screen Half-wave dipole elements
19-31 Reflector array antenna
shifter allows the phase to shift in 45 increments, while a 4-bit phase shifter allows 225 increments of phase shift The active element contains, in addition to a phase shifter, a transmit power amplifier (1 or 2 W) and a low-noise amplifier (LNA) for receiving A pair of transmit/ receive (T/R) switches select the path to which the RF signal is directed The total output power of this antenna is the sum of all output powers from all elements in the array For example, an array of one thousand 2-W elements makes a 2000-W system
Slot array antennas
A resonant slot (cut into a wall of a section of waveguide) is somewhat analogous, if not identical, to a dipole By cutting several slots in the waveguide, we obtain the advantages of an array antenna in which the elements are several slot radiators Slot array antennas are used for marine navigation radars, telemetry systems, and the reception of microwave television signals in the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS) on 2145 GHz Figure 19-34 shows a simple slot antenna used in telemetry applications A slotted section of rectangular waveguide is mounted to a right-angle waveguide flange An internal wedge (not shown) is placed at the top of the waveguide and serves as a matching-impedance termination to prevent internal reflected waves Directivity is enhanced by attaching flanges to the slotted section of waveguide parallel to the direction of propagation (see end view of Fig 19-34) Figure 19-35 shows two forms of flatplate array antennas constructed from slotted waveguide radiator elements (shown as insets) Figure 19-35A shows the rectangular array, and Fig 19-35B shows the circular array These flatplate arrays are used extensively in microwave communications and radar applications The feed structure for a flatplate array is shown in Fig 19-35C The antenna element is the same sort as shown in Figs 19-35A and 19-35B A distribution waveguide is physically mated with the element, and a coupling slot is provided between the two waveguides Energy propagating in the distribution system waveguide is
412 Microwave waveguides and antennas
Branch feed
RF Microwave generators Phase shifters
Antenna elements
Corporate feed
19-32 Branch feed and corporate feed Binary control inputs PIN diode or ferrite phase shifter 19-33A Phase shifter Radiator element
RF input
Microwave antenna safety note 413
Binary control inputs PA
RF port
PIN diode or ferrite phase shifter
ANT
19-33B Phase-shift T/R element
Right-angle waveguide feed flange (Front view)
Directivity flanges
End view
Slots 19-34 Slot antenna (front view)
Waveguide
coupled into the antenna radiator element through this slot In some cases metallic or dielectric phase-shifting stubs are also used in order to fine-tune the antenna radiation pattern
Microwave antenna safety note
Microwave RF energy is dangerous to your health Anything that can cook a roast beef can also cook you! The US government sets a safety limit for microwave exposure of 10 mW/cm2 averaged over 6 minutes; some other countries use a level one-tenth of the US standard The principal problem is tissue heating, and eyes seem especially sensitive to microwave energy Some authorities believe that cataracts form from prolonged exposure Some authorities also believe that genetic damage to offspring is possible as well as other long-term effects as a result of cumulative exposure Because of their relatively high gain, microwave antennas can produce hazardous field strengths in close proximity even at relatively low RF input power levels At
414 Microwave waveguides and antennas
19-35A Flatplate slot array
19-35B Flatplate antenna
Microwave antenna safety note 415
Antenna element
Coupling slot
Distribution system RF input 19-35C Flatplate antenna feed coupling
least one technician in a TV satellite earth station suffered abdominal adhesions, solid matter in the urine, and genital dysfunction after servicing a 45-m-diameter 35-GHz antenna with RF power applied Be very careful around microwave antennas Do not service a radiating antenna When servicing nonradiating antennas, be sure to stow them in a position that prevents the inadvertent exposure of humans, should power accidentally be applied A Radiation Hazard sign should be prominently displayed on the antenna Good design practice requires an interlock system that prevents radiation in such situations Hot transmitter service should be performed with a shielded dummy load replacing the antenna
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