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Now let s turn your attention to the phenomenon of skip communications Ionospheric propagation is responsible for the ability to do intercontinental broadcasting and communications Long-distance radio transmission is carried out on the highfrequency (HF) bands (3 to 30 MHz), also called the shortwave bands These frequencies are used because of the phenomenon called skip Under this type of propagation, the earth s ionosphere acts as though it is a radio mirror Although the actual phenomenon is based on refraction (not reflection, as is frequently believed), the appearance to the casual observer is that shortwave and low-VHF radio signals are reflected from the ionosphere The actual situation is a little different The key lies in the fact that this radio mirror is produced by ionization of the upper atmosphere The upper portion of the atmosphere is called the ionosphere because it tends to be easily ionized by solar and cosmic radiation phenomena The reason for the ease with which that region (30 to 300 mi above the surface) ionizes, is that the air density is very low Energy from the sun strips away electrons from the outer shells of oxygen and nitrogen molecules The electrons become negative ions, while the remaining portion of the atom forms positive ions Because the air is so rarified at those altitudes, those ions can travel great distances before recombining to form electrically neutral atoms again As a result, the average ionization level remains high in that region Several sources of energy will cause ionization of the upper atomosphere Cosmic radiation from outer space causes some degree of ionization, but the majority of ionization is caused by solar energy The role of cosmic radiation was noticed during World War II, when British radar operators discovered that the distance at which their equipment could detect German aircraft was dependent upon whether or not the Milky Way was above the horizon Intergalactic radiation raised the background microwave noise level, thereby adversely affecting the signal-to-noise ratio
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2-25 Atmospheric absorption of radio signals at microwave frequencies
EM wave propagation phenomena 39 Events on the surface of the sun sometimes cause the radio mirror to seem to be almost perfect, and this situation makes spectacular propagation possible At other times, however, solar disturbances (Fig 2-26A) disrupt radio communications for days at a time There are two principal forms of solar energy that affect shortwave communications: electromagnetic radiation and charged solar particles Most of the radiation is above the visible spectrum, in the ultraviolet and x-ray/gamma-ray region of the spectrum Because electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of light, solar events that release radiation cause changes to the ionosphere about 8 minutes later Charged particles, on the other hand, having a finite mass must travel at a considerably slower velocity They require two or three days to reach earth Various sources of both radiation and particles exist on the sun Solar flares can release huge amounts of both radiation and particles These events are unpredictable and sporadic Solar radiation also varies over an approximately 27-day period, which is the rotational period of the sun The same source of radiation will face the earth once every 27 days, and so events tend to be somewhat repetitive Solar and galactic noise affect the reception of weak signals Solar noise can also affect radio propagation and act as a harbinger of changes in propagation patterns Solar noise can be demonstrated by using an ordinary radio receiver and a directional antenna, preferably operating in the VHF/UHF regions of the spectrum (150 to 152 MHz frequently is used) Aim the antenna at the sun on the horizon at either sunset or sunrise A dramatic change in background noise will be noted as the sun slides across the horizon
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