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Scatter propagation modes
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Ionospheric scatter propagation occurs when clouds of ions exist in the atmosphere These clouds can exist in both the ionosphere and the troposphere, although
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52 Radio-wave propagation
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2-36 Azimuthal map centered on Washington, DC (Courtesy of The ARRL Antenna Book)
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the tropospheric model is more reliable for communications Figure 2-38 shows the mechanism for scatter propagation Radio signals from the transmitter are reflected from the cloud of ions to a receiver location that otherwise might not receive it Scatter propagation occurs mostly in the VHF region, and it allows communications over extended paths that are not normally available There are at least three different modes of scatter from ionized clouds: backscatter, side scatter, and forward scatter The backscatter mode is a bit like radar, in that the signal is returned back to the transmitter site, or to regions close to the transmitter Forward scatter occurs when the reflected signal continues in the same azimuthal direction (with respect to the transmitter), but is redirected toward the earth s surface Side scatter is similar to forward scatter, but the azimuthal direction might change Unfortunately, there are often multiple reflections from the ionized cloud, and these are shown as multiple scatter in Fig 2-38 When these reflections are able to
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EM wave propagation phenomena 53
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2-37 The planetary terminator ( gray line ) provides some unusual propagation effects (Courtesy of MFJ Enterprises)
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Multiple scatter Scattering cloud Backscatter Side scatter Forward scatter Transmitting antenna Receiving antenna
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2-38 Various modes of scatter propagation
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54 Radio-wave propagation reach the receiving site, the result is a rapid, fluttery fading that can be of quite profound depths
Auroral propagation
The auroral effect produces a luminescence in the upper atmosphere resulting from bursts of particles released from the sun 18 to 48 hours earlier The light emitted is called the northern lights and the southern lights The ionized regions of the atmosphere that create the lights form a radio reflection shield, especially at VHF and above, although 15 to 20 MHz effects are known Auroral propagation effects are normally seen in the higher latitudes, although listeners in the southern tier of states in the United States are often treated to the reception of signals from the north being reflected from auroral clouds
Meteor scatter propagation
When meteors enter the earth s atmosphere, they do more than simply heat up to the point of burning The burning meteor leaves a wide, but very short duration, transient cloud of ionized particles in its path These ions act as a radio mirror that permits short bursts of reception between sites correctly situated Meteor scatter reception is not terribly reliable, although at least two companies offer meteor scatter communications services for users in the higher latitudes
Other propagation anomalies
The ionosphere is a physically complex place, and even the extensive coverage in this chapter is not sufficient to do it justice Indeed, entire books are available on the subject, and it is a valid engineering subspecialty It is therefore not surprising that a number of propagation anomalies are known Nonreciprocal direction If you listen to an amateur band receiver on the East Coast of the United States, you will sometimes hear European stations especially in the late afternoon But when you try to work those stations there is no reply whatsoever They simply don t hear you! This propagation anomaly causes the radio wave to travel different paths dependent on which direction it travels; ie, an east west signal is not necessarily the reciprocal of a west east signal This anomaly can occur when a radio signal travels through a heavily ionized medium in the presence of a magnetic field, which is exactly the situation when the signal travels through the ionosphere in the presence of the earth s magnetic field Another anomaly seen in the radio literature of the 1930s is the Radio Luxembourg effect It is named after the radio station where it was first noticed In a nonlinear ionosphere, it is sometimes noted that the modulation of superpower (ie, > 500,000 W) shortwave broadcasters will be transferred to the carrier of a weaker signal in the same or nearby band The interchange noted in the 1930s when this phenomenon was first discovered was between Radio Luxembourg and Britain s British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) overseas outlets
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