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The electric and magnetic fields radiated from an antenna form the electromagnetic field, and this field is responsible for the transmission and reception of electromagnetic energy through free space An antenna, however, is also part of the electrical circuit of a transmitter (or a receiver); because of its distributed constants, it acts as a circuit containing inductance, capacitance, and resistance Therefore, it can be expected to display definite voltage and current relationships in respect to a given input A current through it produces a magnetic field, and a charge on it produces an electrostatic field These two fields taken together form the induction field To gain a better understanding of antenna theory, a review of the basic electrical concepts of voltage and electric field and of current and magnetic field is necessary
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Copyright 2001 - the McGraw-Hill Companies
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124 Fundamentals of radio antennas
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Voltage and electric field
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When a capacitor is connected across a source of voltage, such as a battery (Fig 5-1), it is charged some amount, depending on the voltage and the value of capacitance Because of the emf (electromotive force) of the battery, negative charges flow to the lower plate, leaving the upper plate positively charged Accompanying the accumulation of charge is the building up of the electric field The flux lines are directed from the positive to the negative charges and at right angles to the plates If the two plates of the capacitor are spread farther apart, the electric field must curve to meet the plates at right angles (Fig 5-2) The straight lines in A become arcs in B, and approximately semicircles in C, where the plates are in a straight line Instead of flat metal plates, as in the capacitor, the two elements can take the form of metal rods or wires The three-dimensional view in Fig 5-3 depicts the electric field more accurately In A of Fig 5-3, the wires are approximately 30 apart, and the flux lines are projected radially from the positively charged wire to the negatively charged wire In B of Fig 5-3, the two wires lie in a straight line, and the flux lines form a pattern similar to the lines of longitude around the earth To bring out the picture more clearly, only the lines in one plane are given Assume that the sphere marked E in Fig 5-3B is a transmitter supplying RF energy The two wires then can serve as the antenna for the transmitter RF energy is radiated from the antenna and charges move back and forth along the wires, alternately compressing and expanding the flux lines of the electric field The reversals in polarity of the transmitter signal also reverse the direction of the electric field
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5-1 Charges on plates of a capacitor
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Antenna fundamentals 125
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5-2 Electric field between plates at various angles
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5-3 Electric field between wires at various angles
When a charge is put on the plates of a capacitor by means of a battery, an electric field is set up between its plates The flow of charge from source to capacitor ceases when the capacitor is fully charged, and the capacitor is said to be charged to a voltage equal, and of opposite polarity, to that of the source The charged capacitor
126 Fundamentals of radio antennas can be used as a source of emf since it stores energy in the form of an electric field This is the same as saying that an electric field indicates voltage The presence of an electric field about an antenna also indicates voltage Since the polarity, and the amount of charge, depend on the nature of the transmitter output, the antenna voltage also depends on the energy source For example, if a battery constitutes the source, the antenna charges to a voltage equal and opposite to that of the battery If RF energy is supplied to a half-wave antenna, the voltage across the antenna lags the current by 90 The half-wave antenna acts as if it was a capacitor, and it can be described as being capacitive
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