Current and magnetic field in Software

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Current and magnetic field
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A moving charge along a conductor constitutes a current and produces a magnetic field around the conductor Therefore, the flow of charge along an antenna also will be accompanied by a magnetic field The intensity of this field is directly proportional to the flow of charge When the antenna is uncharged, the current flow is maximum, since there is no opposing electric field Because of this current flow, a charge accumulates on the antenna, and an electric field builds up in increasing opposition to the emf of the source The current flow decreases and when the antenna is fully charged, the current no longer flows The magnetic field in the space around a current-carrying device has a specific configuration, with the magnetic flux lines drawn according to a definite rule (Fig 5-4) Whereas, in the electric field, the electric lines are drawn from a positive charge to a negative charge, in the magnetic field, the flux lines are drawn according to the left-hand rule The direction of current flow is upward along both halves of the antenna The lines of magnetic flux form concentric loops that are perpendicular to the direction of current flow The arrowheads on the loops indicate the direction of the field If the thumb of the left hand is extended in the direction of current flow and the fingers are clenched, then the rough circles formed by the fingers indicate the direction of the magnetic field This is the left-hand rule, or convention, which is used to determine the direction of the magnetic field
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Combined electric and magnetic fields
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When RF energy from a transmitter is supplied to an antenna, the effects of charge, voltage, current, and the electric and magnetic fields are taking place simultaneously These effects (Fig 5-5) have definite time and space relationships to each other If a half-wave antenna is used, the relations between charge and current flow can be predicted, because of the capacitive nature of this antenna The voltage will lag the current by 90 , and the electric and magnetic fields will be 90 out of phase With no electric field present (no charge), the current flow is unimpeded, and the magnetic field is maximum As charge accumulates on the antenna, the electric field builds up in opposition to current flow and the magnetic field decreases in intensity When the electric field reaches its maximum strength, the magnetic field has decayed to zero A reversal in polarity of the source reverses the direction of current flow as well as the polarity of the magnetic field, and the electric field aids the flow of current by
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Antenna fundamentals 127
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Direction of current flow
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5-4 Magnetic field about a half-wave antenna (left-hand rule)
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discharging The magnetic field builds up to a maximum, and the electric field disappears as the charge is dissipated The following half-cycle is a repetition of the first half-cycle, but in the reverse direction This process continues as long as energy is supplied to the antenna The fluctuating electric and magnetic fields combine to form the induction field, in which the electric and magnetic flux maximum intensities occur 90 apart in time, or in time quadrature Physically, they occur at right angles to each other, or in space quadrature To sum up, the electric and magnetic fields about the antenna are in space and time quadrature
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Standing waves
Assume that it is possible to have a wire conductor with one end extending infinitely, with an RF transmitter connected to this wire When the transmitter is turned on, an RF current in the form of sine waves of RF energy moves down the wire These waves of energy are called traveling waves The resistance of the conductor gradually diminishes the amplitude of the waves, but they continue to travel so long as the line does not come to an end The antenna, however, has some finite length Therefore, the traveling waves are halted when they reach the end of the conductor Assume that the RF transmitter is turned on just long enough to allow one sine wave of energy to get on the line (Fig 5-6A) This traveling wave is moving down the antenna toward the end When the wave reaches the end of the conductor, the current path is broken abruptly With the stoppage of current flow, the magnetic field collapses A voltage is induced at the end of the conductor that causes current to flow back toward the source, as in Fig 5-6B The wave is reflected back to the source, and, if a continual succession of
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