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The dipole radiation pattern
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The radiation patterns of various antennas are covered in this book Some basic theory of patterns is repeated at each section, not to fill space, but rather to drive home a point and refresh reader memories We keep harking back to the concepts directivity and gain (which are actually different expressions of the same thing) Antenna theory recognizes a point of reference called the isotropic radiator This device is a theoretical construct consisting of a spherical point source of RF radiation in all directions (see Chap 2) It is truly omnidirectional ( all directions ) because it creates an ever-expanding sphere as the RF wavefront propagates outward Antenna gain is a measure of how the antenna focuses available power away from a spherical wavefront to a limited number of directions (two, in the case of the dipole) Thus are related the concepts directivity and gain
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The dipole radiation pattern 147 Always keep in mind that directivity and gain are specified in three dimensions Too many times, people simplify the topic too much by publishing only part of the radiation pattern (azimuth aspect) In other words, the reader is given a pattern viewed from above that shows the directivity in the horizontal plane But a signal does not propagate away from an antenna in an infinitely thin sheet, as such presentations seem to imply; rather, it has an elevation extent in addition to the azimuth extent Thus, proper evaluation of an antenna takes into consideration both horizontal and vertical plane patterns Figure 6-4 shows the radiation pattern of a dipole antenna in free space in the round In the horizontal plane (6-4A), when viewed from above, the pattern is a figure
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End view of vertical plane (rotated 90 from solid figure)
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Top view of horizontal plane (rotated 90 from solid figure) 315 0 45
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6-4 Idealized dipole radiation pattern
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148 High-frequency dipole and other doublet antennas 8 that exhibits bidirectional radiation Two main lobes contain the RF power from the transmitter, with sharp nulls of little or no power off the ends of the antenna axis This pattern is the classical dipole pattern that is published in most antenna books Also shown, however, is the vertical plane pattern for a dipole antenna in free space Note that when sliced in this aspect the radiation pattern is circular (Fig 6-4B) When the two patterns are combined in the round, you can see the three-dimensional doughnut-shaped pattern (Fig 6-4C) that most nearly approximates the true pattern of an unobstructed dipole in free space When a dipole antenna is installed close to the earth s surface, not in free space, as is the case at most stations, the pattern is distorted from that of Fig 6-4 Two effects must be taken into consideration First, and most important, is the fact that the signal from the antenna is reflected from the surface and bounces back into space This signal will be phase-shifted both by the reflection and by the time required for the transit to occur At points where the reflected wave combines in phase with the radiated signal, the signal is reinforced; in places where it combines out of phase, the signal is attenuated Thus, the reflection of the signal from the ground alters the pattern from the antenna The second factor is that the ground is lossy, so not all of the signal is reflected; some of it heats the ground underneath the antenna Thus, the signal is attenuated at a greater rate than the inverse square law, so it further alters the expected pattern Figure 6-5 shows patterns typical of dipole antennas installed close to the earth s surface The views in this illustration correspond to Fig 6-4B, in that they are looking at the vertical plane from a line along the antenna axis Therefore, the antenna is represented by R in each case shown Figure 6-5A shows the case for a dipole
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