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Figure 9-5 shows the true resonant longwire antenna It is a horizontal antenna, and if properly installed, it is not simply attached to a convenient support (as is true with the random length antenna) Rather, the longwire is installed horizontally like a dipole The ends are supported (dipole-like) from standard end insulators and rope The feedpoint of the longwire is one end, so we expect to see a voltage antinode where the feeder is attached For this reason we do not use coaxial cable, but rather either parallel transmission line (also sometimes called open-air line or some such
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218 Longwire directional antennas name), or 450- twin lead The transmission line is excited from any of several types of balanced antenna tuning unit (see Fig 9-5) Alternatively, a standard antenna tuning unit (designed for coaxial cable) can be used if a 4:1 balun transformer is used between the output of the tuner and the input of the feedline What does many wavelengths mean That depends upon just what you want the antenna to do Figure 9-6 shows a fact about the longwire that excites many users of longwires: It has gain! Although a two-wavelength antenna only has a slight gain over a dipole; the longer the antenna, the greater the gain In fact, it is possible to obtain gain figures greater than a three-element beam using a longwire, but only at nine or ten wavelengths
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True longwire antennas 219 What does this mean One wavelength is 984/FMHz ft, so at 10 m (29 MHz) one wavelength is about 34 ft; at 75 m (38 MHz) one wavelength is 259 ft long In order to meet the two-wavelength criterion a 10-m antenna need only be 68 ft long, while a 75-m antenna would be 518 ft long! For a ten-wavelength antenna, therefore, we would need 340 ft for 10 m; and for 75 m, we would need nearly 2,600 ft Ah me, now you see why the longwire is not more popular The physical length of a nonterminated resonant longwire is on the order of 492(N 0025) FMHz
Lfeet =
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(N is number of half-wavelengths in the radiator elements) Of course, there are always people like my buddy (now deceased) John Thorne, K4NFU He lived near Austin, TX on a multiacre farmette that has a 1400ft property line along one side John installed a 1300 ft longwire and found it worked excitingly well He fed the thing with homebrew 450- parallel (open-air) line and a Matchbox antenna tuner John s longwire had an extremely low angle of radiation, so he regularly (much to my chagrin on my small suburban lot) worked ZL, VK, and other Southeast Asia and Pacific basin DX, with only 100 W from a Kenwood transceiver Oddly enough, John also found a little bitty problem with the longwire that textbooks and articles rarely mention: electrostatic fields build up a high-voltage dc charge on longwire antennas! Thunderstorms as far as 20 mi away produce serious levels of electrostatic fields, and those fields can cause a buildup of electrical charge on the antenna conductor The electric charge can cause damage to the receiver John solved the problem by using a resistor at one end to ground The resistor is composed of ten to twenty 10-M resistors at 2 W each This resistor bleeds off the charge, preventing damage to the receiver A common misconception about longwire antennas concerns the normal radiation pattern of these antennas I have heard amateurs, on the air, claim that the maximum radiation for the longwire is 1 Broadside (ie, 90 ) with respect to the wire run or 2 In line with the wire run Neither is correct, although ordinary intuition would seem to indicate one or the other Figure 9-7 shows the approximate radiation pattern of a longwire when viewed from above There are four main lobes of radiation from the longwire (A, B, C, and D) There are also two or more (in some cases many) minor lobes (E and F) in the antenna pattern The radiation angle with respect to the wire run (G H) is a function of the number of wavelengths found along the wire Also, the number and extent of the minor lobes is also a function of the length of the wire
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